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La Place De La Notion De Chômage Involontaire Dans La Théorie Keynésienne De L’Emploi

  • Alain Béraud

    ()

    (Théma, UMR 8184, Université de Cergy-Pontoise - 33, boulevard du Port 95011 Cergy-Pontoise, Cedex)

La notion de chômage involontaire a longtemps occupé dans la théorie économique un rôle central. L’expression apparaît très tôt, dès le début du 20ème siècle, quand les économistes commencèrent à s’intéresser au chômage. Elle désigne simplement les chômeurs qui accepteraient de travailler au taux de salaire courant. Keynes donna de cette expression une définition différente, beaucoup plus étroite. Le chômage involontaire est, selon lui, le chômage qui trouve son origine dans l’insuffisance de la demande de biens. Au début des années 1970, Phelps, Alchian et Holt lui opposèrent une analyse où les agents ne disposent que d’une information imparfaite sur les salaires et les emplois. Leur idées furent reprises et développées notamment par Diamond, Mortensen et Pissarides. Dans la théorie du chômage d’équilibre, l’opposition entre chômage volontaire et chômage involontaire n’a pas de sens, que l’on définisse le chômage involontaire comme le faisait Keynes ou, plus simplement, comme l’offre de travail excédentaire. Mais, plus fondamentalement, ce que cette approche rejette c’est l’idée que l’on peut faire abstraction du « chômage frictionnel » dans l’analyse de la détermination du niveau de l’emploi. La décomposition du chômage en une série de catégories — frictionnel, cyclique, volontaire, involontaire… — n’est pas susceptible de nous aider dans une analyse théorique ou empirique du chômage.

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Paper provided by THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise in its series THEMA Working Papers with number 2008-16.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ema:worpap:2008-16
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  1. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Galí, 2005. "Real wage rigidities and the new Keynesian model," Economics Working Papers 912, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Oct 2005.
  2. Robert Shimer, 2005. "The Cyclical Behavior of Equilibrium Unemployment and Vacancies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 25-49, March.
  3. Nash, John, 1950. "The Bargaining Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 18(2), pages 155-162, April.
  4. Dale T. Mortensen & Christopher A. Pissarides, 1993. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment," CEP Discussion Papers dp0110, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  5. Robert E. Hall, 2005. "Employment Fluctuations with Equilibrium Wage Stickiness," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 50-65, March.
  6. Pissarides, C A, 1979. "Job Matchings with State Employment Agencies and Random Search," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 89(356), pages 818-33, December.
  7. Peter A. Diamond & Eric Maskin, 1979. "An Equilibrium Analysis of Search and Breach of Contract, I: Steady States," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 282-316, Spring.
  8. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1978. "Unemployment Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 353-57, May.
  9. Christopher Pissarides, 2007. "The unemployment volatility puzzle: is wage stickiness the answer?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4460, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  10. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Gali, 2007. "A New Keynesian Model with Unemployment," Kiel Working Papers 1335, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  11. Mauro Boianovsky & Hans-Michael Trautwein, 2003. "Wicksell, Cassel, and the Idea of Involuntary Unemployment," History of Political Economy, Duke University Press, vol. 35(3), pages 385-436, Fall.
  12. Robert E. Hall & Paul R. Milgrom, 2007. "The Limited Influence of Unemployment on the Wage Bargain," Levine's Bibliography 321307000000000135, UCLA Department of Economics.
  13. Hall, Robert E., 1979. "A theory of the natural unemployment rate and the duration of employment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 153-169, April.
  14. Edmund S. Phelps, 1968. "Money-Wage Dynamics and Labor-Market Equilibrium," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76, pages 678.
  15. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521641739 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Mortensen, Dale T. & Pissarides, Christopher A., 1999. "Job reallocation, employment fluctuations and unemployment," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 18, pages 1171-1228 Elsevier.
  17. Yellen, Janet L, 1984. "Efficiency Wage Models of Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 200-205, May.
  18. Nash, John, 1953. "Two-Person Cooperative Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 21(1), pages 128-140, April.
  19. Salop, Steven C, 1979. "A Model of the Natural Rate of Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 117-25, March.
  20. Diamond, Peter A, 1982. "Wage Determination and Efficiency in Search Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(2), pages 217-27, April.
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