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Income Convergence Clubs for Brazilian Municipalities: a Non-Parametric Analysis

  • Márcio Laurini
  • Eduardo Andrade

In this article we analyze the evolution of relative per capita income distribution of Brazilian municipalities over the period 1970-1996. Our analyses are based on nonparametric methodologies and do not assume probability distributions or functional forms for the data. We have carried out two convergence tests - a test for Sigma convergence based on the Bootstrap principle and a Beta convergence test using Smoothing Splines for the growth regressions. The results obtained demonstrate the need to model the dynamics of income for Brazilian municipalities as a process of convergence clubs, using the methodology of transition matrices and stochastic kernels. The results show the formation of two convergence clubs, a low income club formed by the municipalities of the North and Northeast regions, and another high income club formed by the municipalities of the Center-West, Southeast and South regions. The formation of convergence clubs is confirmed by a bootstrap test for multimodality

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Paper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings with number 51.

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Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:ecm:latm04:51
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  1. Bulli, Sandra, 2001. "Distribution Dynamics and Cross-Country Convergence: A New Approach," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(2), pages 226-43, May.
  2. Becker, Gary S & Murphy, Kevin M & Tamura, Robert, 1990. "Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages S12-37, October.
  3. Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Lanjouw, Peter & Neri, Marcelo Côrtes, 2003. "A Robust Poverty Profile for Brazil Using Multiple Data Sources," Revista Brasileira de Economia, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 57(1), January.
  4. Oliver LINTON, . "Applied nonparametric methods," Statistic und Oekonometrie 9312, Humboldt Universitaet Berlin.
  5. Quah, Danny, 1993. "Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," CEPR Discussion Papers 820, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Afonso Henriques Borges Ferreira, 1998. "Concentração regional e dispersão das rendas per capita estaduais: um comentário," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td121, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
  7. Swan, Trevor W, 2002. "Economic Growth," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 78(243), pages 375-80, December.
  8. Hardle, W., 1992. "Applied Nonparametric Methods," Papers 9206, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
  9. Afonso Henriques Borges Ferreira & Clélio Campolina Diniz, 1994. "Convergência entre as rendas per capita estaduais no Brasil," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td079, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
  10. Friedman, Milton, 1992. "Do Old Fallacies Ever Die?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 2129-32, December.
  11. T. W. Swan, 1956. "ECONOMIC GROWTH and CAPITAL ACCUMULATION," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 32(2), pages 334-361, November.
  12. repec:dgr:kubcen:19926 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Jeffrey A. Mills & Sourushe Zandvakili, 1999. "Statistical Inference via Bootstrapping for Measures of Inequality," Macroeconomics 9902003, EconWPA.
  14. Carlos R. Azzoni, 2001. "Economic growth and regional income inequality in Brazil," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 133-152.
  15. Mossi, Mariano & Aroca, Patricio & Fernandez, Ismael & Azzoni, Carlos, 2002. "Growth dynamics and space in Brazil," ERSA conference papers ersa02p499, European Regional Science Association.
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