Income Convergence Clubs for Brazilian Municipalities: a Non-Parametric Analysis
In this article we analyze the evolution of relative per capita income distribution of Brazilian municipalities over the period 1970-1996. Our analyses are based on nonparametric methodologies and do not assume probability distributions or functional forms for the data. We have carried out two convergence tests - a test for Sigma convergence based on the Bootstrap principle and a Beta convergence test using Smoothing Splines for the growth regressions. The results obtained demonstrate the need to model the dynamics of income for Brazilian municipalities as a process of convergence clubs, using the methodology of transition matrices and stochastic kernels. The results show the formation of two convergence clubs, a low income club formed by the municipalities of the North and Northeast regions, and another high income club formed by the municipalities of the Center-West, Southeast and South regions. The formation of convergence clubs is confirmed by a bootstrap test for multimodality
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