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Housing Inequality and how Fiscal Policy shapes it: Evidence from Belgian Real Estate

Author

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  • Gerard Domènech-Arumí
  • Paula Eugenia Gobbi
  • Glenn Magerman

Abstract

We use detailed information on all real estate stock and transactions since 2006 to study housing inequality in Belgium and how a recent policy shaped it. We use the transactions to predict the market value of all dwellings in the country, to then estimate inequality in value or space at different levels of aggregation - from the federal to the local neighborhood level. Overall inequality is relatively low (Gini of 0.25), but significant heterogeneity exists across and within municipalities. Using a dfferences-in-differences framework, we study how Flanders's recent 3% reduction in registration fees affected house prices and inequality. We estimate that the policy increased prices by 3% on average and reduced inequality in Flanders by 0.8% by compressing the price distribution from below. We argue that the primary winners of the policy are low-value homeowners, who see their estate's valuation increase. The main losers are low-value renters, who might see rent increases in the short term. Both parts of the paper reveal signiffcant geographic heterogeneities, thus highlighting the importance of granularity in the data for studying inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Gerard Domènech-Arumí & Paula Eugenia Gobbi & Glenn Magerman, 2022. "Housing Inequality and how Fiscal Policy shapes it: Evidence from Belgian Real Estate," Working Papers ECARES 2022-31, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:eca:wpaper:2013/350819
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Wojciech Kopczuk & David Munroe, 2015. "Mansion Tax: The Effect of Transfer Taxes on the Residential Real Estate Market," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 214-257, May.
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    3. Peter Kuhn & Peter Kooreman & Adriaan Soetevent & Arie Kapteyn, 2011. "The Effects of Lottery Prizes on Winners and Their Neighbors: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(5), pages 2226-2247, August.
    4. Raj Chetty & Nathaniel Hendren, 2018. "The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility II: County-Level Estimates," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 133(3), pages 1163-1228.
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    Keywords

    inequality; housing market; fiscal policy;
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