And the Winner Is--Acquired: Entrepreneurship as a Contest with Acquisition as the Prize
R&D incentives of new entrants to a market may be shaped by the prospects of being acquired by an incumbent. In this paper, we analyze a two-stage innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability goes along with a higher value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses the least radical project. Entrants pick projects of pairwise different success probabilities, and the larger the number of entrants, the more radical the most radical project becomes. Under certain conditions, we can show uniqueness of this equilibrium and robustness to changes in the timing of the game. Generally, entrants tend to choose more radical R&D approaches than the incumbent and are more likely to generate the highest value innovation. Thus, the need of entrants to be acquired yields yet another explanation, beyond cannibalization and organizational issues, of why radical innovations tend to come from entrants rather than from incumbents. We illustrate our theoretical findings by a qualitative empirical study of the Electronic Design Automation Industry, and derive implications for research and management.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
|Order Information:|| Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2000.
"The Determinants of Corporate Venture Capital Success: Organizational Structure, Incentives, and Complementarities,"
in: Concentrated Corporate Ownership, pages 17-54
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul A. Gompers & Josh Lerner, 1998. "The Determinants of Corporate Venture Capital Successes: Organizational Structure, Incentives, and Complementarities," NBER Working Papers 6725, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Reinganum, Jennifer F, 1983.
"Uncertain Innovation and the Persistence of Monopoly,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 741-48, September.
- Reinganum, Jennifer R., 1982. "Uncertain Innovation and the Persistence of Monopoly," Working Papers 431, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Sykes, Hollister B. & Block, Zenas, 1989. "Corporate venturing obstacles: Sources and solutions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 159-167, May.
- Eero Lehto & Olavi Lehtoranta, 2006. "How Do Innovations Affect Mergers and Acquisitions—Evidence from Finland?," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 5-25, March.
- Granstrand, Ove & Sjölander, Sören, 1990. "The Acquisition of Technology and Small Firms by Large Firms," Working Paper Series 213, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Dasgupta, Partha & Maskin, Eric, 1987. "The Simple Economics of Research Portfolios," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(387), pages 581-95, September.
- Granstrand, Ove & Sjolander, Soren, 1990. "The acquisition of technology and small firms by large firms," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 367-386, June.
- Abdul Ali & Manohar U. Kalwani & Dan Kovenock, 1993. "Selecting Product Development Projects: Pioneering versus Incremental Innovation Strategies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(3), pages 255-274, March.
- William J. Baumol, 2004. "Entrepreneurial Enterprises, Large Established Firms and Other Components of the Free-Market Growth Machine," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 9-21, 08.
- Gerlach, Heiko A. & Rønde, Thomas & Stahl, Konrad, 2005.
"Labour Pooling in R&D Intensive Industries,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5285, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Heiko A. Gerlach & Thomas Rønde & Konrad Stahl, 2005. "Labor Pooling in R&D Intensive Industries," CIE Discussion Papers 2005-01, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
- Gerlach, Heiko & Rønde, Thomas & Stahl, Konrad O., 2005. "Labor Pooling in R&D Intensive Industries," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 64, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
- Lerner, Josh & Merges, Robert P, 1998. "The Control of Technology Alliances: An Empirical Analysis of the Biotechnology Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 125-56, June.
- Gilbert, Richard J & Newbery, David M G, 1982. "Preemptive Patenting and the Persistence of Monopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 514-26, June.
- Hussinger, Katrin & Grimpe, Christoph, 2008. "Market and Technology Access Through Firm Acquisitions: Beyond One Size Fits All," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-037, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Grimpe, Christoph & Hussinger, Katrin, 2007.
"Pre-empting Technology Competition Through Firm Acquisitions,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
07-027, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Grimpe, Christoph & Hussinger, Katrin, 2008. "Pre-empting technology competition through firm acquisitions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 189-191, August.
- Luis Cabral, 2000.
"Increasing Dominance With No Efficiency Effect,"
00-06, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Cabral, L., 2000. "Increasing Dominance with No Efficiency Effect," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 00-06, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
- David H. Hsu, 2006. "Venture Capitalists and Cooperative Start-up Commercialization Strategy," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(2), pages 204-219, February.
- Heiko A. Gerlach & Thomas Rønde & Konrad Stahl, 2004. "Project Choice and Risk in R&D," CIE Discussion Papers 2004-01, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:8147. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask to update the entry or send us the correct address
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.