IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Entrepreneurial Human Capital, Complementary Assets, and Takeover Probability

Gaining access to technologies, competencies, and knowledge is observed as one of the major motives for corporate mergers and acquisitions. In this paper we show that a knowledge-based firm’s probability of being a takeover target is influenced by whether relevant specific human capital aimed for in acquisitions is directly accumulated within a specific firm or is bound to its founder or manager owner. We analyze the incentive effects of different arrangements of ownership in a firm’s assets in the spirit of the Grossman-Hart-Moore incomplete contracts theory of the firm. This approach highlights the organizational significance of ownership of complementary assets. In a small theoretical model we assume that the entrepreneur’s specific human capital, as measured by the patents they own, and the physical assets of their firm are productive only when used together. Our results show that it is not worthwhile for an acquirer to purchase the alienable assets of this firm due to weakened incentives for the initial owner. Regression analysis using a hand collected dataset of all German IPOs in the period from 1997 to 2006 subsequently provides empirical support for this prediction. This paper adds to previous research in that it puts empirical evidence to the Grossman-Hart-Moore framework of incomplete contracts or property rights respectively. Secondly, we show that relevant specific human capital that is accumulated by a firm’s founder or manager owner significantly decreases that firm’s probability of being a takeover target.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.wiwi.uni-augsburg.de/vwl/institut/paper/307.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Universitaet Augsburg, Institute for Economics in its series Discussion Paper Series with number 307.

as
in new window

Length: pages
Date of creation: Dec 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:aug:augsbe:0307
Contact details of provider: Postal: Universitaetsstrasse 16, D-86159 Augsburg, Germany
Phone: +49 821 598 4060
Fax: +49 821 598 4217
Web page: http://www.wiwi.uni-augsburg.de/vwl/institut
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Ronan G. Powell, 1997. "Modelling Takeover Likelihood," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(7&8), pages 1009-1030.
  2. Jones, Gary K. & LanctotJR., Aldor & Teegen, Hildy J., 2001. "Determinants and performance impacts of external technology acquisition," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 255-283, May.
  3. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 351.
  4. Oliver Hart & John Moore, 1988. "Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm," Working papers 495, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  5. Oliver Hart & John Moore, 2007. "Contracts as Reference Points," ESE Discussion Papers 170, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  6. Ernst Fehr & Oliver Hart & Christian Zehnder, 2008. "Contracts as reference points – experimental evidence," IEW - Working Papers 393, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  7. repec:fth:harver:1473 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Gregory Tassey, 2010. "Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 283-333, June.
  9. Griliches, Zvi, 1990. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 28(4), pages 1661-1707, December.
  10. Massimo Colombo & Philippe Mustar & Mike Wright, 2010. "Dynamics of Science-based entrepreneurship," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 1-15, February.
  11. Grimpe, Christoph & Hussinger, Katrin, 2007. "Pre-empting Technology Competition Through Firm Acquisitions," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-027, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  12. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
  13. Mike Wright & Ajay Vohora & Andy Lockett, 2004. "The Formation of High-Tech University Spinouts: The Role of Joint Ventures and Venture Capital Investors," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(3_4), pages 287-310, 08.
  14. Damiano Bonardo & Stefano Paleari & Silvio Vismara, 2010. "The M&A dynamics of European science-based entrepreneurial firms," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 141-180, February.
  15. Dietrich, J. Kimball & Sorensen, Eric, 1984. "An application of logit analysis to prediction of merger targets," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 393-402, September.
  16. Frank R. Lichtenberg & Donald Siegel, 1991. "The Effects of Leveraged Buyouts on Productivity and Related Aspects of Firm Behavior," NBER Working Papers 3022, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Joshua S. Cans & Scott Stern, 2000. "Incumbency and R&D Incentives: Licensing the Gale of Creative Destruction," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 485-511, December.
  18. Eckbo, B Espen & Giammarino, Ronald M & Heinkel, Robert L, 1990. "Asymmetric Information and the Medium of Exchange in Takeovers: Theory and Tests," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(4), pages 651-75.
  19. Harhoff, Dietmar & von Graevenitz, Georg & Wagner, Stefan, 2008. "Incidence and Growth of Patent Thickets - The Impact of Technological Opportunities and Complexity," CEPR Discussion Papers 6900, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  20. Oliver Hart & Bengt Holmstrom, 2008. "A Theory of Firm Scope," NBER Working Papers 14613, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Antoine Soubeyran & Hubert Stahn, 2007. "Do Investments in Specialized Knowledge Lead to Composite Good Industries?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 119-135, June.
  22. Granstrand, Ove & Sjölander, Sören, 1990. "The Acquisition of Technology and Small Firms by Large Firms," Working Paper Series 213, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  23. Palepu, Krishna G., 1986. "Predicting takeover targets : A methodological and empirical analysis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-35, March.
  24. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver, 1985. "The Cost and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," CEPR Discussion Papers 70, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  25. Frank R. Lichtenberg & Donald Siegel, 1987. "Productivity and Changes in Ownership of Manufactoring Plants," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 643-684.
  26. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "The Governance of the New Enterprise," NBER Working Papers 7958, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2009. "The Organization of the Innovation Industry: Entrepreneurs, Venture Capitalists and Oligopolists," Working Paper Series 783, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  28. Eero Lehto & Olavi Lehtoranta, 2006. "How Do Innovations Affect Mergers and Acquisitions—Evidence from Finland?," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 5-25, March.
  29. Barnes, Paul, 1999. " Predicting UK Takeover Targets: Some Methodological Issues and an Empirical Study," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 283-301, May.
  30. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 2004. "New lists: Fundamentals and survival rates," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 229-269, August.
  31. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 2001. "The Firm As A Dedicated Hierarchy: A Theory Of The Origins And Growth Of Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(3), pages 805-851, August.
  32. Meuleman,M. & Amess, K. & Wright, M. & Scholes, L., 2008. "Agency, strategic entrepreneurship and the performance of private equity backed buyouts," Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Working Paper Series 2008-05, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.
  33. Audretsch, David B & Thurik, A Roy, 2001. "What's New about the New Economy?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(1), pages 267-315, March.
  34. Ronan G. Powell, 2004. "Takeover Prediction Models and Portfolio Strategies: A Multinomial Approach," Multinational Finance Journal, Multinational Finance Journal, vol. 8(1-2), pages 35-72, March-Jun.
  35. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1979. "Job Matching and the Theory of Turnover," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 972-90, October.
  36. Oliver Fabel, 2004. "Spinoffs of Entrepreneurial Firms: An O-Ring Approach," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 160(3), pages 416-, September.
  37. Bing-Sheng Teng, 2007. "Corporate Entrepreneurship Activities through Strategic Alliances: A Resource-Based Approach toward Competitive Advantage," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(1), pages 119-142, 01.
  38. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  39. Jung-Chin Shen & Jeffrey Reuer, 2005. "Adverse Selection in Acquisitions of Small Manufacturing Firms: A Comparison of Private and Public Targets," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 393-407, 05.
  40. Panos Desyllas & Alan Hughes, 2009. "The revealed preferences of high technology acquirers: An analysis of the innovation characteristics of their targets," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(6), pages 1089-1111, November.
  41. Oliver Hart, 2009. "Hold-Up, Asset Ownership, and Reference Points-super-," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 124(1), pages 267-300, February.
  42. Ang, James & Kohers, Ninon, 2001. "The Take-Over Market for Privately Held Companies: The US Experience," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(6), pages 723-48, November.
  43. James C. Brau & Bill Francis & Ninon Kohers, 2003. "The Choice of IPO versus Takeover: Empirical Evidence," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76(4), pages 583-612, October.
  44. Harhoff, Dietmar & Scherer, Frederic M. & Vopel, Katrin, 2003. "Citations, family size, opposition and the value of patent rights," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1343-1363, September.
  45. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 110.
  46. Ellingsen, Tore & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1997. "The Stock Market as a Screening Device and the Decision to Go Public," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 174, Stockholm School of Economics.
  47. Granstrand, Ove & Sjolander, Soren, 1990. "The acquisition of technology and small firms by large firms," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 367-386, June.
  48. Zingales, Luigi, 1995. "Insider Ownership and the Decision to Go Public," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(3), pages 425-48, July.
  49. Mike Wright & Sue Birley & Simon Mosey, 2004. "Entrepreneurship and University Technology Transfer," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(3_4), pages 235-246, 08.
  50. Blonigen, Bruce A & Taylor, Christopher T, 2000. "R&D Intensity and Acquisitions in High-Technology Industries: Evidence from the US Electronic and Electrical Equipment Industries," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 47-70, March.
  51. Erik Brynjolfsson, 1994. "Information Assets, Technology and Organization," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(12), pages 1645-1662, December.
  52. Ekaterina Bjørnåli & Magnus Gulbrandsen, 2010. "Exploring board formation and evolution of board composition in academic spin-offs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 92-112, February.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aug:augsbe:0307. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dr. Albrecht Bossert)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.