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Competition with exclusive contracts and market-share discounts

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  • Calzolari, Giacomo
  • Denicolò, Vincenzo

Abstract

We study the effects of exclusive contracts and market-share discounts (i.e., discounts conditioned on the share a firm receives of the customer’s total purchases) in an adverse selection model where firms supply differentiated products and compete in non-linear prices. We show that exclusive contracts intensify the competition among the firms, increasing consumer surplus, improving efficiency, and reducing profits. Firms would gain if these contracts were prohibited, but are caught in a prisoner’s dilemma if they are permitted. In this latter case, allowing firms to offer also market-share discounts unambiguously weakens competition, reducing efficiency and harming consumers. However, starting from a situation where exclusive contracts are prohibited, the effect of market-share discounts (which include exclusive contracts as a limiting case) is ambiguous.

Suggested Citation

  • Calzolari, Giacomo & Denicolò, Vincenzo, 2009. "Competition with exclusive contracts and market-share discounts," CEPR Discussion Papers 7613, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:7613
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    10. repec:adr:anecst:y:1994:i:34:p:03 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Philippe Choné & Laurent Linnemer, 2011. "Leaving the Door Ajar : Nonlinear Pricing by a Dominant Firm," Working Papers 2011-16, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:indorg:v:55:y:2017:i:c:p:25-57 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Philippe Choné & Laurent Linnemer, 2015. "Nonlinear pricing and exclusion: I. buyer opportunism," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 46(2), pages 217-240, June.
    3. Hoernig Steffen & Valletti Tommaso M., 2011. "When Two-Part Tariffs are Not Enough: Mixing with Nonlinear Pricing," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-20, October.
    4. Kitamura, Hiroshi & Matsushima, Noriaki & Sato, Misato, 2018. "Exclusive contracts with complementary inputs," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 145-167.
    5. Giacomo Calzolari & Vincenzo Denicolò, 2015. "Exclusive Contracts and Market Dominance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(11), pages 3321-3351, November.
    6. Martimort, David & Semenov, Aggey & Stole, Lars, 2017. "A Complete Characterization of Equilibria in a Common Agency Screening Game," MPRA Paper 80870, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Hiroshi Kitamura & Noriaki Matsushima & Misato Sato, 2013. "How Does Downstream Firms' Efficiency Affect Exclusive Supply Agreements?," ISER Discussion Paper 0878r, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University, revised Sep 2015.
    8. Calzolari, Giacomo & Denicolò, Vincenzo & Zanchettin, Piercarlo, 2016. "Exclusive dealing with costly rent extraction," CEPR Discussion Papers 11291, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Johannes Paha, 2017. "Wholesale Pricing with Incomplete Information about Private Label Products," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201736, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    10. Armstrong, Mark, 2010. "Bundling revisited: substitute products and inter-firm discounts," MPRA Paper 26782, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Adachi, Takanori & Ebina, Takeshi, 2014. "Cost pass-through and inverse demand curvature in vertical relationships with upstream and downstream competition," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 465-468.
    12. Martimort, David & Stole, Lars, 2015. "Menu Auctions and Influence Games with Private Information," MPRA Paper 62388, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Hiroshi Kitamura & Noriaki Matsushima & Misato Sato, 2018. "Naked exclusion under exclusive-offer competition," ISER Discussion Paper 1021, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
    14. Etro, Federico, 2016. "Research in economics and industrial organization," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(4), pages 511-517.
    15. Frank Maier-Rigaud & Ulrich Schwalbe, 2013. "Do Retroactive Rebates Imply Lower Prices for Consumers?," Working Papers 2013-ECO-10, IESEG School of Management.
    16. Martimort, David & Stole, Lars, 2011. "Public Contracting in Delegated Agency Games," MPRA Paper 32874, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Calzolari, Giacomo & Denicolò, Vincenzo, 2011. "On the anti-competitive effects of quantity discounts," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 337-341, May.
    18. Armstrong, Mark, 2013. "A more general theory of commodity bundling," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 148(2), pages 448-472.
    19. repec:dpr:wpaper:0918 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. David Martimort & Aggey Semenov & Lars Stole, 2016. "A Complete Characterization of Equilibria in Common Agency Screening Games," Working Papers 1618E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
    21. Katja Greer, 2013. "Limiting rival's efficiency via conditional discounts," Working Papers 132, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
    22. Philippe Choné & Laurent Linnemer, 2012. "Nonlinear Pricing as Exclusionary Conduct," Working Papers 2012-11, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    23. repec:the:publsh:2266 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Calzolari, Giacomo & Denicolò, Vincenzo, 2010. "Competitive quantity discounts," CEPR Discussion Papers 8144, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    25. Philippe Choné & Laurent Linnemer, 2011. "Leaving the Door Ajar : Nonlinear Pricing by a Dominant Firm," Working Papers 2011-16, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    common agency; exclusionary contracts; market share discounts; price competition;

    JEL classification:

    • D42 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Monopoly
    • D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
    • L42 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts

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