The Doha Round and Market Access for LDCs: Scenarios for the EU and US Markets
LDCs hoped that the DOHA round would bring them greater market access in OECD countries than for non-LDCs. Using HS-6 tariff level data for the US and the EU for 2004, this paper estimates that, once the erosion from preferential access into the EU to non-LDCs is taken into account, LDCs have about a 3% preferential margin in the EU market. In the US market, in spite of preferences under AGOA, on a trade-weighted basis, LDCs are discriminated against. Under various “Swiss formulas” for tariff cuts, effective market access for LDCs in the EU will be negligible and still negative in the US. If the US were to apply a 97% rule (i.e. duty-free, quota-free access for all but three percent of the tariff lines), LDCs could increase exports by 10% or about $1billion annually. Effective market access is further reduced by complicated Rules of Origin (RoO) applied by the EU and the US. Furthermore, generally, the most restrictive RoO fall on products in which LDCs have the greatest preferential market access.
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- Céline CARRERE & Jaime MELO DE, 2004.
"Are Different Rules of Origin Equally Costly? Estimates from NAFTA,"
- Céline Carrère & Jaime de Melo, 2015. "Are Different Rules of Origin Equally Costly? Estimates from NAFTA," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 12, pages 277-298 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Céline Carrere & Olivier Cadot, 2006. "Are different Rules of Origin Equally Costly? Estimates from NAFTA," Post-Print hal-00130079, HAL.
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- Brenton, Paul, 2003. "Integrating the least developed countries into the world trading system : the current impact of EU preferences under everything but arms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3018, The World Bank.
- Céline Carrère & Jaime de Melo & Bolormaa Tumurchudur, 2008.
"Disentangling Market Access Effects for ASEAN Members under an ASEAN-EU FTA,"
Development Working Papers
259, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
- Carrère, Céline & de Melo, Jaime & Tumurchudur, Bolormaa, 2008. "Disentangling Market Access Effects for ASEAN Members Under an ASEAN-EU FTA," CEPR Discussion Papers 6762, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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