IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cir/cirwor/2001s-01.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Asymmetric Smiles, Leverage Effects and Structural Parameters

Author

Listed:
  • René Garcia
  • Richard Luger
  • Éric Renault

Abstract

In this paper, we characterize the asymmetries of the smile through multiple leverage effects in a stochastic dynamic asset pricing framework. The dependence between price movements and future volatility is introduced through a set of latent state variables. These latent variables can capture not only the volatility risk and the interest rate risk which potentially affect option prices, but also any kind of correlation risk and jump risk. The standard financial leverage effect is produced by a cross-correlation effect between the state variables which enter into the stochastic volatility process of the stock price and the stock price process itself. However, we provide a more general framework where asymmetric implied volatility curves result from any source of instantaneous correlation between the state variables and, either the return on the stock or the stochastic discount factor. In order to draw the shapes of the implied volatility curves generated by a model with latent variables, we specify an equilibrium-based stochastic discount factor with time non-separable preferences. When we calibrate this model to empirically reasonable values of the parameters, we are able to reproduce the various types of implied volatility curves inferred from option market data. Dans cet article, nous caractérisons les asymétries observées dans les courbes de volatilités implicites par la présence d'effets de levier multiples dans un modèle dynamique stochastique d'évaluation des actifs financiers. La dépendance entre les mouvements de prix et la volatilité future est introduite par l'intermédiaire d'un ensemble de variables d'état latentes. Ces variables d'état sont susceptibles de capter non seulement le risque de volatilité et le risque de taux d'intérêt qui peuvent influer sur les prix d'options,0501s encore les risques de corrélation et de saut. L'effet de levier financier traditionnel est produit quant à lui par une corrélation instantanée entre les variables d'état qui entrent dans le processus de volatilité stochastique du prix de l'action et le processus du prix de l'action proprement dit. Nous disposons toutefois d'un cadre plus général dans lequel l'asymétrie des courbes de volatilités implicites résulte de toute corrélation instantanée entre les variables d'état et soit le rendement de l'action soit le facteur d'actualisation stochastique. Dans le but de tracer les formes des courbes de volatilités implicites générées par un modèle avec variables latentes, nous spécifions un facteur d'actualisation stochastique fondé sur un modèle d'équilibre avec préférences non séparables dans le temps. Lorsque nous calibrons ce modèle avec des valeurs raisonnables des paramètres, nous reproduisons les diverses formes de courbes de volatilités implicites qui sont produites à partir des données de prix d'options observées sur le marché.

Suggested Citation

  • René Garcia & Richard Luger & Éric Renault, 2001. "Asymmetric Smiles, Leverage Effects and Structural Parameters," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-01, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2001s-01
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/2001s-01.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. GARCIA, René & RENAULT, Éric, 1998. "Risk Aversion, Intertemporal Substitution, and Option Pricing," Cahiers de recherche 9801, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
    2. Constantinides, George M, 1992. "A Theory of the Nominal Term Structure of Interest Rates," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(4), pages 531-552.
    3. Alexander David & Pietro Veronesi, 1999. "Option prices with uncertain fundamentals theory and evidence on the dynamics of implied volatilities," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-47, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. John Y. Campbell & John H. Cochrane, 1994. "By force of habit: a consumption-based explanation of aggregate stock market behavior," Working Papers 94-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    5. Fiorentini, Gabriele & Sentana, Enrique, 1998. "Conditional Means of Time Series Processes and Time Series Processes for Conditional Means," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1101-1118, November.
    6. Clark, Peter K, 1973. "A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(1), pages 135-155, January.
    7. Rubinstein, Mark, 1994. " Implied Binomial Trees," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(3), pages 771-818, July.
    8. Turnbull, Stuart M & Milne, Frank, 1991. "A Simple Approach to Interest-Rate Option Pricing," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(1), pages 87-120.
    9. Hansen, Lars Peter & Richard, Scott F, 1987. "The Role of Conditioning Information in Deducing Testable," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 587-613, May.
    10. Campbell, John Y. & Hentschel, Ludger, 1992. "No news is good news *1: An asymmetric model of changing volatility in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 281-318, June.
    11. Yacine Aït-Sahalia & Andrew W. Lo, 1998. "Nonparametric Estimation of State-Price Densities Implicit in Financial Asset Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 499-547, April.
    12. Eric Ghysels & Andrew Harvey & Éric Renault, 1995. "Stochastic Volatility," CIRANO Working Papers 95s-49, CIRANO.
    13. A. Ronald Gallant & Chien-Te Hsu & George Tauchen, 1999. "Using Daily Range Data To Calibrate Volatility Diffusions And Extract The Forward Integrated Variance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(4), pages 617-631, November.
    14. Cecchetti, Stephen G. & Lam, Pok-sang & Mark, Nelson C., 1993. "The equity premium and the risk-free rate : Matching the moments," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 21-45, February.
    15. Garcia, R. & Bonomo, M., 1993. "Disappointment Aversion as a Solution to the Equity Premium and the Risk- Free Rate Puzzles," Cahiers de recherche 9334, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
    16. Bakshi, Gurdip & Cao, Charles & Chen, Zhiwu, 2000. "Pricing and hedging long-term options," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 277-318.
    17. Hull, John C & White, Alan D, 1987. " The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 281-300, June.
    18. Garcia, Rene & Luger, Richard & Renault, Eric, 2003. "Empirical assessment of an intertemporal option pricing model with latent variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1-2), pages 49-83.
    19. repec:crs:wpaper:9810 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Kreps, David M & Porteus, Evan L, 1978. "Temporal Resolution of Uncertainty and Dynamic Choice Theory," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 185-200, January.
    21. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-384, March.
    22. René Garcia & Éric Renault, 1999. "Latent Variable Models for Stochastic Discount Factors," CIRANO Working Papers 99s-47, CIRANO.
    23. Merton, Robert C., 1976. "Option pricing when underlying stock returns are discontinuous," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 125-144.
    24. Bonomo, Marco & Garcia, Rene, 1996. "Consumption and equilibrium asset pricing: An empirical assessment," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 239-265, September.
    25. David S. Bates, 1997. "Post-'87 Crash Fears in S&P 500 Futures Options," NBER Working Papers 5894, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    26. Naik, Vasanttilak & Lee, Moon, 1990. "General Equilibrium Pricing of Options on the Market Portfolio with Discontinuous Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(4), pages 493-521.
    27. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    28. Eric Renault & Nizar Touzi, 1996. "Option Hedging And Implied Volatilities In A Stochastic Volatility Model," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 279-302.
    29. Epstein, Larry G & Zin, Stanley E, 1991. "Substitution, Risk Aversion, and the Temporal Behavior of Consumption and Asset Returns: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(2), pages 263-286, April.
    30. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
    31. Kyriakos Chourdakis & Elias Tzavalis, 2000. "Option Pricing under Discrete Shifts in Stock Returns," Working Papers 426, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
    32. Bailey, Warren & Stulz, René M., 1989. "The Pricing of Stock Index Options in a General Equilibrium Model," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(01), pages 1-12, March.
    33. Bakshi, Gurdip & Cao, Charles & Chen, Zhiwu, 2000. "Do Call Prices and the Underlying Stock Always Move in the Same Direction?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 549-584.
    34. Breeden, Douglas T & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1978. "Prices of State-contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 621-651, October.
    35. Harrison, J. Michael & Kreps, David M., 1979. "Martingales and arbitrage in multiperiod securities markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 381-408, June.
    36. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The valuation of options for alternative stochastic processes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 145-166.
    37. Chernov, Mikhail & Ghysels, Eric, 2000. "A study towards a unified approach to the joint estimation of objective and risk neutral measures for the purpose of options valuation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 407-458, June.
    38. Eckhard Platen & Martin Schweizer, 1998. "On Feedback Effects from Hedging Derivatives," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1), pages 67-84.
    39. Grossman, Sanford J & Zhou, Zhongquan, 1996. " Equilibrium Analysis of Portfolio Insurance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1379-1403, September.
    40. John Y. Campbell & John Cochrane, 1999. "Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(2), pages 205-251, April.
    41. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    42. Kaushik I. Amin & Robert A. Jarrow, 2008. "Pricing Options On Risky Assets In A Stochastic Interest Rate Economy," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Financial Derivatives Pricing Selected Works of Robert Jarrow, chapter 15, pages 327-347 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    43. Mark Rubinstein., 1994. "Implied Binomial Trees," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-232, University of California at Berkeley.
    44. Longstaff, Francis A, 1995. "Option Pricing and the Martingale Restriction," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(4), pages 1091-1124.
    45. Bakshi, Gurdip & Cao, Charles & Chen, Zhiwu, 1997. " Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 2003-2049, December.
    46. Bernard Dumas & Jeff Fleming & Robert E. Whaley, 1998. "Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 2059-2106, December.
    47. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1978. "Asset Prices in an Exchange Economy," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1429-1445, November.
    48. Jan Kallsen & Murad S. Taqqu, 1998. "Option Pricing in ARCH-type Models," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1), pages 13-26.
    49. Das, Sanjiv Ranjan & Sundaram, Rangarajan K., 1999. "Of Smiles and Smirks: A Term Structure Perspective," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(02), pages 211-239, June.
    50. Amin, Kaushik I & Ng, Victor K, 1993. " Option Valuation with Systematic Stochastic Volatility," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(3), pages 881-910, July.
    51. Epstein, Larry G & Zin, Stanley E, 1989. "Substitution, Risk Aversion, and the Temporal Behavior of Consumption and Asset Returns: A Theoretical Framework," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(4), pages 937-969, July.
    52. Heston, Steven L, 1993. "A Closed-Form Solution for Options with Stochastic Volatility with Applications to Bond and Currency Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(2), pages 327-343.
    53. Brennan, M J, 1979. "The Pricing of Contingent Claims in Discrete Time Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 53-68, March.
    54. Jin-Chuan Duan, 1995. "The Garch Option Pricing Model," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 13-32.
    55. Jorion, Philippe, 1995. " Predicting Volatility in the Foreign Exchange Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(2), pages 507-528, June.
    56. Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-552, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Garcia, Rene & Luger, Richard & Renault, Eric, 2003. "Empirical assessment of an intertemporal option pricing model with latent variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1-2), pages 49-83.
    2. Nour Meddahi, 2001. "An Eigenfunction Approach for Volatility Modeling," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-70, CIRANO.
    3. Ali Alami & Éric Renault, 2001. "Risque de modèle de volatilité," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-06, CIRANO.
    4. Daglish, Toby & Maheu, John & McCurdy, Tom, 2008. "A Financial Metric for Comparing Volatility Models: Do Better Models Make Money?," Working Paper Series 4009, Victoria University of Wellington, The New Zealand Institute for the Study of Competition and Regulation.
    5. Rene Garcia & Richard Luger & Eric Renault, 2004. "Option Prices, Preferences, and State Variables," Emory Economics 0418, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
    6. Henri Bertholon & Alain Monfort & Fulvio Pegoraro, 2006. "Pricing and Inference with Mixtures of Conditionally Normal Processes," Working Papers 2006-28, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    7. Anindya Biswas & Biswajit Mandal, 2016. "Estimating Preference Parameters From Stock Returns Using Simulated Method Of Moments," Annals of Financial Economics (AFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 11(01), pages 1-13, March.
    8. Benzoni, Luca & Collin-Dufresne, Pierre & Goldstein, Robert S., 2011. "Explaining asset pricing puzzles associated with the 1987 market crash," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 552-573, September.
    9. René Garcia & Richard Luger & Éric Renault, 2001. "Empirical Assessment of an Intertemporal Option Pricing Model with Latent Variables (Note : New version February 2002) / Empirical Assessment of an Intertemporal Option Pricing Model with Latent Varia," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-02, CIRANO.
    10. René Garcia & Éric Renault, 1999. "Latent Variable Models for Stochastic Discount Factors," CIRANO Working Papers 99s-47, CIRANO.
    11. Almut E. D. Veraart, 2008. "Impact of time–inhomogeneous jumps and leverage type effects on returns and realised variances," CREATES Research Papers 2008-57, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    12. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:30:y:2010:i:1:p:182-191 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Alexander David & Pietro Veronesi, 1998. "Option Prices with Uncertain Fundamentals: Theory and Evidence on the Dynamics of Implied Volatilities," CRSP working papers 485, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
    14. Fousseni Chabi-Yo & René Garcia & Eric Renault, 2005. "State Dependence in Fundamentals and Preferences Explains Risk-Aversion Puzzle," Staff Working Papers 05-9, Bank of Canada.
    15. Frederik Lundtofte, 2010. "Implied volatility and risk aversion in a simple model with uncertain growth," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(1), pages 182-191.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Option pricing; stochastic discount factor; stochastic volatility; Black-Scholes implied volatility; smile effect; equilibrium option pricing; Évaluation d'options; facteur d'actualisation stochastique; volatilité stochastique; volatilité implicite de Black-Scholes; effet de sourire; modèle d'équilibre d'évaluation d'options;

    JEL classification:

    • C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
    • G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2001s-01. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Webmaster). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ciranca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.