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Income and Wealth Inequality in America, 1949-2016

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  • Moritz Kuhn
  • Moritz Schularick
  • Ulrike I. Steins

Abstract

This paper introduces a new long-run dataset based on archival data from historical waves of the Survey of Consumer Finances. The household-level data allow us to study the joint distributions of household income and wealth since 1949. We expose the central importance of portfolio composition and asset prices for wealth dynamics in postwar America. Asset prices shift the wealth distribution because the composition and leverage of household portfolios differ systematically along the wealth distribution. Middle-class portfolios are dominated by housing, while rich households predominantly own equity. An important consequence is that the top and the middle of the distribution are affected differentially by changes in equity and house prices. Housing booms lead to substantial wealth gains for leveraged middle-class households and tend to decrease wealth inequality, all else equal. Stock market booms primarily boost the wealth of households at the top of the distribution. This race between the equity market and the housing market shaped wealth dynamics in postwar America and decoupled the income and wealth distribution over extended periods. The historical data also reveal that no progress has been made in reducing income and wealth inequalities between black and white households over the past 70 years, and that close to half of all American households have less wealth today in real terms than the median household had in 1970.

Suggested Citation

  • Moritz Kuhn & Moritz Schularick & Ulrike I. Steins, 2017. "Income and Wealth Inequality in America, 1949-2016," CESifo Working Paper Series 6608, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_6608
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Dustmann, Christian & Fitzenberger, Bernd & Zimmermann, Markus, 2018. "Housing expenditures and income inequality," ZEW Discussion Papers 18-048, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    2. Krapf, Matthias, 2018. "The Joint Distribution of Wealth and Income Risk: Evidence from Bern," Working papers 2018/18, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    3. Kuvshinov, Dmitry & Zimmermann, Kaspar, 2018. "The Big Bang: Stock Market Capitalization in the Long Run," MPRA Paper 88581, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Albert, Juan-Francisco & Gómez-Fernández, Nerea, 2018. "Monetary policy and the redistribution of net worth in the US," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 91320, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    income and wealth inequality; household portfolios; historical micro data;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • N32 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-

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