Wage Inequality in Germany: Disentangling Demand and Supply Effects
In this paper we conduct a counterfactual analysis and estimate the quantitative importance of demand and supply effects on wage inequality in Germany using a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Auerbach-Kotlikoff (1987) type. Specifically, the methodological contribution of our dynamic CGE model refers to the three-level constant elasticity of substitution production function and the endogenous labor supply of three different skill types, which enable us to isolate the impact of capital-skill complementarity (i.e., demand effects) and varying skill-specific labor supply (i.e., supply effects) on the evolution of the skill premia as defined by the 9th to 1st, the 9th to 5th, and the 5th to 1st decile limit of earnings.In short, our simulation results show that the complementarity effect has a particularly strong positive impact on the skill premium of the high-skilled, while the quantity effect counteracts the complementarity effect and exerts an alleviating pressure on the skill premium of the high-skilled. In quantitative terms, the complementarity effect raises the skill premium of the 9th to 1st and the 9th to 5th decile limit of earnings by more than 1.0 and 0.8 percent per year, respectively. By contrast, the quantity effect reduces both above-mentioned skill premia by almost 0.3 and 0.45 percent per year, respectively. Even though the complementarity and the quantity effects work in opposite directions, the complementarity effect has a much stronger impact on the skill premia of the high-skilled compared with the quantity effect.
|Date of creation:||2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 (89) 9224-0
Fax: +49 (89) 985369
Web page: http://www.cesifo.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, 1996.
"The Origins of Technology-Skill Complementarity,"
NBER Working Papers
5657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chris Papageorgiou & Viera Chmelarova, 2005.
"Nonlinearities in Capital–Skill Complementarity,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 55-86, 01.
- FitzRoy, Felix & Funke, Michael, 1995.
"Capital-Skill Complementarity in West German Manufacturing,"
Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 651-65.
- Felix Fitzroy & Michael Funke, 1994. "Capital-Skill Complementarity in West German Manufacturing," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 9408, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
- Per Krusell & Lee E. Ohanian & Jose-Victor Rios-Rull & Giovanni L. Violante, 1997.
"Capital-skill complementarity and inequality: a macroeconomic analysis,"
239, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Per Krusell & Lee E. Ohanian & JosÈ-Victor RÌos-Rull & Giovanni L. Violante, 2000. "Capital-Skill Complementarity and Inequality: A Macroeconomic Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(5), pages 1029-1054, September.
- Stimmelmayr, Michael, 2007. "Fundamental Capital Income Tax Reforms," Beiträge zur Finanzwissenschaft, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, edition 1, volume 23, number urn:isbn:9783161492617, Abril.
- Chirinko, Robert S. & Fazzari, Steven M. & Meyer, Andrew P., 1999. "How responsive is business capital formation to its user cost?: An exploration with micro data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 53-80, October.
- Martin Feldstein, 2005.
"Structural Reform of Social Security,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 19(2), pages 33-55, Spring.
- Lindquist, Matthew J., 2005.
"Capital-Skill Complementarity and Inequality in Sweden,"
Working Paper Series
2/2005, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
- Matthew J. Lindquist, 2005. "Capital-Skill Complementarity and Inequality in Sweden," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 107(4), pages 711-735, December.
- Fehr, Hans, 1999. "Welfare Effects of Dynamic Tax Reforms," Beiträge zur Finanzwissenschaft, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, edition 1, volume 5, number urn:isbn:9783161470165, Abril.
- Gernandt, Johannes & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2006.
"Rising Wage Inequality in Germany,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
06-19, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Johannes Gernandt & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2007. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 227(4), pages 358-380, August.
- Gernandt, Johannes & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2006. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-19 [rev.], ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Johannes Gernandt & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2006. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," Working Papers of the Research Group Heterogenous Labor 06-12, Research Group Heterogeneous Labor, University of Konstanz/ZEW Mannheim.
- Johannes Gernandt & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2007. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 14, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
- Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Gernandt, Johannes, 2007. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-019 [rev.2], ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Bound, John & Johnson, George, 1992. "Changes in the Structure of Wages in the 1980's: An Evaluation of Alternative Explanations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 371-92, June.
- Feldstein, Martin, 2005. "Structural Reform of Social Security," Scholarly Articles 2794830, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Chris Papageorgiou & Fidel Pérez Sebastián & John Duffy, 2002.
"Capital-Skill Complementarity? Evidence From A Panel Of Countries,"
Working Papers. Serie AD
2002-09, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- John Duffy & Chris Papageorgiou & Fidel Perez-Sebastian, 2004. "Capital-Skill Complementarity? Evidence from a Panel of Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 327-344, February.
- Chris Papageorgiou & John Duffy & Fidel Perez-Sebastian, . "Capital-Skill complementarity? Evidence from a Panel of Countries," Departmental Working Papers 2003-12, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
- Cummins, J.G. & Hassett, K.A. & Hubbard, R.G., 1995.
"tax Reforms and Investment: A Cross-Country Comparison,"
95-28, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Cummins, Jason G. & Hassett, Kevin A. & Hubbard, R. Glenn, 1996. "Tax reforms and investment: A cross-country comparison," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1-2), pages 237-273, October.
- Jason G. Cummins & Kevin A. Hassett & R. Glenn Hubbard, 1995. "Tax Reforms and Investment: A Cross-Country Comparison," NBER Working Papers 5232, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stephen Machin & John Van Reenen, 1998.
"Technology And Changes In Skill Structure: Evidence From Seven Oecd Countries,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 113(4), pages 1215-1244, November.
- Machin, S. & Van Reenen, J., 1997. "Technology and Changes in Skill Structure: Evidence from Seven OECD Countries," Papers 24, Centre for Economic Performance & Institute of Economics.
- Stephen Machin & John Van Reenen, 1998. "Technology and changes in skill structure: evidence from seven OECD countries," IFS Working Papers W98/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Valkonen, Tarmo, . "The Finnish Corporate and Capital Income Tax Reform. A General Equilibrium Approach," ETLA A, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, number 29.
- Robert H. Topel, 1997. "Factor Proportions and Relative Wages: The Supply-Side Determinants of Wage Inequality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(2), pages 55-74, Spring.
- Whited, Toni M., 1994. "Problems with identifying adjustment costs from regressions of investment on q," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 327-332, December.
- Fallon, P R & Layard, P R G, 1975. "Capital-Skill Complementarity, Income Distribution, and Output Accounting," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(2), pages 279-301, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2802. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Julio Saavedra)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.