En-gendering Effective Planning: Spatial Mismatch, Low-Income Women, and Transportation Policy
Welfare-to-work transportation programs are premised on a conceptualization of the spatial mismatch hypothesis that focuses on the mismatch between the central city locations of welfare participants, rapidly expanding job opportunities in the suburbs, and the long commutes needed to connect them. Feminist scholarship and travel behavior research, however, show that low-income, single mothers have travel patterns that are not consistent with a mismatch between central city residents commuting considerable distances to suburban jobs. Premising welfare-to-work transportation policies on the spatial mismatch hypothesis has thus resulted in a policy mismatch between welfare recipients and their transportation needs. To better address the transportation needs of low-income mothers, policies must account for the important role of gender in determining where welfare recipients will look for work, how they are likely to conduct their job searches, and the mode by which they travel to both employment and household-supporting destinations.
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- Reid, Clifford E., 1985. "The effect of residential location on the wages of black women and white women," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 350-363, November.
- Barbara Burnell, 1997. "Some Reflections on the Spatial Dimensions of Occupational Segregation," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(3), pages 69-86.
- Evelyn Blumenberg & Paul Ong, 1998. "Job accessibility and welfare usage: Evidence from Los Angeles," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 639-657.
- Ong, Paul M., 2002. "Car Access and Welfare-To-Work," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5002g5gm, University of California Transportation Center.
- Ihlanfeldt Keith R., 1993. "Intra-urban Job Accessibility and Hispanic Youth Employment Rates," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 254-271, March.
- H. J. Holzer & S. Danziger, . "Are Jobs Available for Disadvantaged Workers in Urban Areas?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1157-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
- Rosenbloom, Sandra & Burns, Elizabeth, 1994. "Why Working Women Drive Alone: Implications for Travel Reduction Programs," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4x17v3f1, University of California Transportation Center.
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