En-gendering Effective Planning: Spatial Mismatch, Low-Income Women, and Transportation Policy
Welfare-to-work transportation programs are predicated on a conceptualization of the spatial mismatch hypothesis that focuses on the central-city residential locations of welfare participants, rapidly expanding job opportunities in the suburbs, and the long commutes needed to connect them. Feminist scholarship and travel behavior research, however, show that the travel patterns of low-income single mothers are not consistent with this behavior, resulting in a policy mismatch between many welfare recipients and their transportation needs. The research reviewed in this article indicates that policymakers and planners should do more to address the transportation needs of these low-income women. Policies must account for the important role of gender in determining where welfare recipients will look for work, how they are likely to conduct their job searches, and the mode by which they travel to both employment and household-supporting destinations.
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- Reid, Clifford E., 1985. "The effect of residential location on the wages of black women and white women," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 350-363, November.
- Barbara Burnell, 1997. "Some Reflections on the Spatial Dimensions of Occupational Segregation," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(3), pages 69-86.
- Ong, Paul M., 2002. "Car Access and Welfare-To-Work," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5002g5gm, University of California Transportation Center.
- Rosenbloom, Sandra & Burns, Elizabeth, 1994. "Why Working Women Drive Alone: Implications for Travel Reduction Programs," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4x17v3f1, University of California Transportation Center.
- Evelyn Blumenberg & Paul Ong, 1998. "Job accessibility and welfare usage: Evidence from Los Angeles," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 639-657.
- H. J. Holzer & S. Danziger, . "Are Jobs Available for Disadvantaged Workers in Urban Areas?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1157-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
- Ihlanfeldt Keith R., 1993. "Intra-urban Job Accessibility and Hispanic Youth Employment Rates," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 254-271, March.
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