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The Effects of Driving Restrictions on Air Quality and Driver Behavior


  • Carnovale, Maria
  • Gibson, Matthew


We evaluate whether driving restrictions improve air quality. While Milan's restriction decreases overall air pollution, there is a significant behavioral response that attenuates the effect. Our study expoits the natural experiment created by an unanticipated court injunction suspending Milan's restriction. Drivers respond to the restriction with: 1) intertemporal substituion toward the unpriced period; 2) substitution toward exempt vehicles; and 3) spatial substitution toward unpriced roads. Importantly, the net effect on traffic varies with public transit availability.

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  • Carnovale, Maria & Gibson, Matthew, 2013. "The Effects of Driving Restrictions on Air Quality and Driver Behavior," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt0v8813qm, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:ucsdec:qt0v8813qm

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rotaris, Lucia & Danielis, Romeo & Marcucci, Edoardo & Massiani, Jérôme, 2010. "The urban road pricing scheme to curb pollution in Milan, Italy: Description, impacts and preliminary cost-benefit analysis assessment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(5), pages 359-375, June.
    2. Nicholas J. Sanders, 2012. "What Doesn’t Kill You Makes You Weaker: Prenatal Pollution Exposure and Educational Outcomes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(3), pages 826-850.
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    Cited by:

    1. Börjesson , Maria & Kristoffersson , Ida, 2014. "The Gothenburg congestion charge: effects, design and politics," Working papers in Transport Economics 2014:25, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).
    2. Börjesson, Maria & Kristoffersson, Ida, 2015. "The Gothenburg congestion charge. Effects, design and politics," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 134-146.
    3. West, Jens & Börjesson, Maria, 2016. "The Gothenburg congestion charges: CBA and equity," Working papers in Transport Economics 2016:17, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).

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    Social and Behavioral Sciences; spatial substitution; air pollution; air quality;

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