The Effects of Driving Restrictions on Air Quality and Driver Behavior
We evaluate whether driving restrictions improve air quality.Â While Milan's restriction decreases overall air pollution, there is a significant behavioral response that attenuates the effect.Â Our study expoits the natural experiment created by an unanticipated court injunction suspending Milan's restriction.Â Drivers respond to the restriction with: 1) intertemporal substituion toward the unpriced period; 2) substitution toward exempt vehicles; and 3) spatial substitution toward unpriced roads.Â Importantly, the net effect on traffic varies with public transit availability.
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- Nicholas J. Sanders, 2012.
"What Doesn’t Kill You Makes You Weaker: Prenatal Pollution Exposure and Educational Outcomes,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(3), pages 826-850.
- Nicholas J. Sanders, 2011. "What Doesn't Kill you Makes you Weaker: Prenatal Pollution Exposure and Educational Outcomes," Discussion Papers 10-019, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Rotaris, Lucia & Danielis, Romeo & Marcucci, Edoardo & Massiani, Jérôme, 2010. "The urban road pricing scheme to curb pollution in Milan, Italy: Description, impacts and preliminary cost-benefit analysis assessment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(5), pages 359-375, June.
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