International Trade in Used Vehicles: The Environmental Consequences of NAFTA
Over the last two decades an unprecedented increase in private vehicle ownership has taken place in the developing world. This growth is due, in part, to increased international trade in used vehicles. In this paper we use theory and empirical evidence to evaluate the environmental implications of free trade in vehicles and other used durable goods. With nonâ€homothetic preferences, used vehicles are relatively inexpensive in highâ€income countries and free trade causes these goods to be exported to lowâ€income countries. We apply this framework to the North American Free Trade Agreement. Since trade restrictions were eliminated in 2005, over 2.5 million used cars have been exported from the United States to Mexico. Using a unique, vehicleâ€level dataset, we find that traded vehicles are dirtier than the stock of vehicles in the United States and cleaner than the stock in Mexico, so trade leads average vehicle emissions to decrease in both countries. Total greenhouse gas emissions increase, primarily because trade gives new life to vehicles that otherwise would have been scrapped. Key Words: Durable Goods, Nonâ€Homothetic Preferences, NAFTA, Climate Change JEL: F18, H23, Q54, Q56.
|Date of creation:||10 Feb 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (510) 642-1922
Fax: (510) 642-5018
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/iber_econ/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 755-87, August.
- Stokey, Nancy L, 1991.
"The Volume and Composition of Trade between Rich and Poor Countries,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(1), pages 63-80, January.
- Nancy L. Stokey, 1989. "The Volume and Composition of Trade Between Rich and Poor Countries," Discussion Papers 849, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Clerides, Sofronis, 2008. "Gains from trade in used goods: Evidence from automobiles," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 322-336, December.
- Kenneth Y. Chay & Michael Greenstone, 2003.
"The Impact Of Air Pollution On Infant Mortality: Evidence From Geographic Variation In Pollution Shocks Induced By A Recession,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1121-1167, August.
- Kenneth Y. Chay & Michael Greenstone, 1999. "The Impact of Air Pollution on Infant Mortality: Evidence from Geographic Variation in Pollution Shocks Induced by a Recession," NBER Working Papers 7442, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Borcherding, Thomas E & Silberberg, Eugene, 1978. "Shipping the Good Apples Out: The Alchian and Allen Theorem Reconsidered," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(1), pages 131-38, February.
- Thoumi, Francisco E., 1975. "A theory of the optimum age to import a durable good : With a reference to the Columbian case," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 145-160, June.
- Rosen, Sherwin, 1974. "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(1), pages 34-55, Jan.-Feb..
- Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 1998.
"Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?,"
NBER Working Papers
6707, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer, 1991.
"Quality and Trade,"
NBER Working Papers
3622, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kevin M.Shleifer Murphy & Andrei, 1991. "Quality and Trade," University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State 66, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
- William T. Harbaugh & Arik Levinson & David Molloy Wilson, 2002.
"Reexamining The Empirical Evidence For An Environmental Kuznets Curve,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 541-551, August.
- William Harbaugh & Arik Levinson & David Wilson, 2000. "Reexamining the Empirical Evidence for an Environmental Kuznets Curve," Working Papers gueconwpa~00-00-07, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
- William Harbaugh & Arik Levinson & David Wilson, 2000. "Reexamining the Empirical Evidence for an Environmental Kuznets Curve," NBER Working Papers 7711, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pablo D. Fajgelbaum & Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2009.
"Income Distribution, Product Quality, and International Trade,"
NBER Working Papers
15329, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pablo Fajgelbaum & Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2011. "Income Distribution, Product Quality, and International Trade," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 119(4), pages 721 - 765.
- Fajgelbaum, Pablo & Grossman, Gene M. & Helpman, Elhanan, 2011. "Income distribution, product quality, and international trade," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5843, The World Bank.
- Susanna Esteban & Matthew Shum, 2007. "Durable-goods oligopoly with secondary markets: the case of automobiles," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(2), pages 332-354, 06.
- repec:clg:wpaper:2008-02 is not listed on IDEAS
- Danilo Pelletiere & Kenneth A. Reinert, 2004. "Used automobile protection and trade: Gravity and ordered probit analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 737-751, December.
- Bond, Eric W, 1983. "Trade in Used Equipment with Heterogeneous Firms," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(4), pages 688-705, August.
- Arik Levinson & M. Scott Taylor, 2004.
"Unmasking the Pollution Haven Effect,"
NBER Working Papers
10629, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gruenspecht, Howard K, 1982. "Differentiated Regulation: The Case of Auto Emissions Standards," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 328-31, May.
- Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
- Danilo Pelletiere & Kenneth A. Reinart, 2002. "The Political Economy of Used Automobile Protection in Latin America," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(7), pages 1019-1037, 07.
- William D. Nordhaus, 2007. "A Review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(3), pages 686-702, September.
- Lawrence Goulder & Mark Jacobsen & Arthur van Benthem, 2009. "Unintended Consequences from Nested State & Federal Regulations: The Case of the Pavley Greenhouse-Gas-per-Mile Limits," Discussion Papers 08-049, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Navaretti, Giorgio Barba & Soloaga, Isidro & Takacs, Wendy, 2000. "Vintage Technologies and Skill Constraints: Evidence from U.S. Exports of New and Used Machines," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 91-109, January.
This item is featured on the following reading lists or Wikipedia pages:
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:econwp:qt98j8m3r6. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.