Bank ties and bond market access: evidence on investment-cash flow sensitivity in Japan
The banking literature has established that banks can alleviate information asymmetries between lenders and borrowers, while the Q literature has used cash flow sensitivity analysis to test whether financing constraints hinder investment. Building on the results in Hoshi, Kashyap and Scharfstein (1991) and Hayashi (2000), this paper investigates whether bank ties in Japan were costly for mature and healthy firms in the 1980s and 1990s and whether banks continued to facilitate investment once non-bank financing options became available. Using the explicit bond issuing criteria to solve the endogenous firm sorting problem, I measure the investment-cash flow sensitivity of Japanese firms, and find it lowest for those firms known to have faced bond market constraints. I then find that the spread in sensitivity was much larger for main bank client firms, once bond market access is controlled for. This result, coupled with results on the relative profitability and bond activity of bank-affiliated firms, is consistent with banks capturing the net benefits of relationship lending during the period of bond market deregulation.
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- Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1989.
"Corporate structure, liquidity, and investment: evidence from Japanese industrial groups,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
82, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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"The Fable of the Keiretsu,"
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Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(2), pages 169-224, 06.
- Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap, 2000.
"The Japanese Banking Crisis: Where Did It Come From and How Will It End?,"
in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1999, Volume 14, pages 129-212
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap, 1999. "The Japanese Banking Crisis: Where Did It Come From and How Will It End?," NBER Working Papers 7250, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1990.
"Bank Monitoring and Investment: Evidence from the Changing Structure of Japanese Corporate Banking Relationships,"
in: Asymmetric Information, Corporate Finance, and Investment, pages 105-126
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1989. "Bank Monitoring and Investment: Evidence from the Changing Structure of Japanese Corporate Banking Relationships," NBER Working Papers 3079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Oliner, Stephen D & Rudebusch, Glenn D, 1992. "Sources of the Financing Hierarchy for Business Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 643-54, November.
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- Toshitaka Sekine, 1999. "Firm Investment and Balance-Sheet Problems in Japan," IMF Working Papers 99/111, International Monetary Fund.
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