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Air Pollution Exposure and Covid-19

Author

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  • Matthew A Cole

    (University of Birmingham)

  • Ceren Ozgen

    (University of Birmingham)

  • Eric Strobl

    (University of Bern)

Abstract

In light of the existing preliminary evidence of a link between Covid-19 and poor air quality, which is largely based upon correlations, we estimate the relationship between long term air pollution exposure and Covid-19 in 355 municipalities in the Netherlands. Using detailed secondary and administrative data we find compelling evidence of a positive relationship between air pollution, and particularly PM2:5 concentrations, and Covid-19 cases, hospital admissions and deaths. This relationship persists after controlling for a wide range of explanatory variables. Our results indicate that a 1 ug/m3 increase in PM2:5 concentrations is associated with 9.4 more Covid-19 cases, 3.0 more hospital admissions, and 2.3 more deaths. The relationship between Covid-19 and air pollution withstands a number of sensitivity and robustness exercises including instrumenting pollution to mitigate potential endogeneity and modelling spatial spillovers using spatial econometric techniques.

Suggested Citation

  • Matthew A Cole & Ceren Ozgen & Eric Strobl, 2020. "Air Pollution Exposure and Covid-19," Discussion Papers 20-13, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
  • Handle: RePEc:bir:birmec:20-13
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Matthew A. Cole & Robert J R Elliott & Bowen Liu, 2020. "The Impact of the Wuhan Covid-19 Lockdown on Air Pollution and Health: A Machine Learning and Augmented Synthetic Control Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 76(4), pages 553-580, August.
    2. Steve Cicala & Stephen P. Holland & Erin T. Mansur & Nicholas Z. Muller & Andrew J. Yates, 2020. "Expected Health Effects of Reduced Air Pollution from COVID-19 Social Distancing," Working Papers 2020-61, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
    3. Glaser, Stephanie, 2017. "A review of spatial econometric models for count data," Hohenheim Discussion Papers in Business, Economics and Social Sciences 19-2017, University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences.
    4. Piotr Lewandowski & Katarzyna Lipowska & Iga Magda, 2021. "The Gender Dimension of Occupational Exposure to Contagion in Europe," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1-2), pages 48-65, April.
    5. Lewandowski, Piotr, 2020. "Occupational Exposure to Contagion and the Spread of COVID-19 in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 13227, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2015. "Control Function Methods in Applied Econometrics," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 50(2), pages 420-445.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Covid-19; air pollution; Netherlands; spatial spillovers;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

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