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Posible impacto de Basilea II en los países emergentes

  • Alicia García-Herrero


    (Banco de España)

  • Sergio Gavilá


    (Banco de España)

El nuevo Marco de Basilea II será importante para los países emergentes pues una buena parte de ellos ha declarado tener intención de introducir dicho Marco en un futuro más o menos cercano y los bancos internacionales que operan en muchos de estas economías estarán sujetos al nuevo Marco a través del grupo. Basilea II tendrá importantes beneficios para estos países: la mejora en la medición y gestión del riesgo de sus bancos y de la supervisión bancaria. También es probable que se produzca una mejora en la estructura del balance bancario pues puede aumentar el colateral y las titulaciones, así como el incentivo a endeudarse en moneda local y a más plazo. Basilea II tendrá algunos inconvenientes al no haber sido calibrado para estos países; otro problema potencial es la mayor prociclicidad del crédito bancario. Adicionalmente puede ocurrir que los balances de los bancos domésticos y los bancos internacionales que operan en países emergentes sean cada vez más diferentes, con más riesgo en los primeros y menos en los segundos y que los bancos extranjeros soporten un coste de capital mayor por utilizar el enfoque IRB en todo el grupo. Por último, el impacto sobre el capital regulatorio y el coste de financiación de estos países dependerá mucho de cuál sea el riesgo soberano de cada economía emergente y del enfoque que se utilice dentro del primer pilar de Basilea II (estándar o IRB). Según nuestras propias estimaciones, para los países emergentes no pertenecientes a la OCDE podría incluso reducirse el coste de financiación mientras que aumentará ligeramente en los pocos países emergentes que forman parte de la OCDE. En resumen, Basilea II sobre los países emergentes debería traer más beneficios que costes aunque esta es una valoración general y dependerá del país del que se trate y del enfoque de Basilea II que se utilice.

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Paper provided by Banco de España & Occasional Papers Homepage in its series Occasional Papers with number 0606.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bde:opaper:0606
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  1. Repullo, Rafael & Suarez, Javier, 2003. "Loan Pricing Under Basel Capital Requirements," CEPR Discussion Papers 3917, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Powell, Andrew, 2002. "A capital accord for emerging economies?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2808, The World Bank.
  3. Thomas F. Cosimano & Ralph Chami & Adolfo Barajas, 2005. "Did the Basel Accord Cause a Credit Slowdown in Latin America?," IMF Working Papers 05/38, International Monetary Fund.
  4. Concetta Chiuri, Maria & Ferri, Giovanni & Majnoni, Giovanni, 2002. "The macroeconomic impact of bank capital requirements in emerging economies: Past evidence to assess the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 881-904, May.
  5. Liebig, Thilo & Porath, Daniel & di Mauro, Beatrice Weder & Wedow, Michael, 2004. "How will Basel II affect bank lending to emerging markets? An analysis based on German bank level data," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2004,05, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  6. Hu, Yen-Ting & Kiesel, Rudiger & Perraudin, William, 2002. "The estimation of transition matrices for sovereign credit ratings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1383-1406, July.
  7. Stephanou, Constantinos & Mendoza, Juan Carlos, 2005. "Credit risk measurement under Basel II : an overview and implementation issues for developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3556, The World Bank.
  8. Majnoni, Giovanni & Miller, Margaret & Powell, Andrew, 2004. "Bank capital and loan loss reserves under Basel II - implications for emerging countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3437, The World Bank.
  9. Beatrice Weder & Michael Wedow, 2002. "Will Basel II Affect International Capital Flows to Emerging Markets?," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 199, OECD Publishing.
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