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The Incidence of Reserve Requirements in Brazil: Do Bank Stockholders Share the Burden?

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  • Fabia A. de Carvalho
  • Cyntia F. Azevedo

Abstract

There is consensus in the economic literature that the reserve requirements are a tax levied upon financial intermediation, yet the incidence of the tax remains controversial. In this paper, we test whether changes in reserve requirements in Brazil impact the stock returns of the financial system distinctly from the rest of the economy. We find evidence that Brazilian bank stock returns were affected by changes in reserve requirements on both time deposits and transaction accounts, which implies that the tax burden of required reserves was not fully passed through to banks' borrowers or clients. Stock returns of non-financial firms were also affected by these changes, suggesting that in some cases, reserve requirements on time deposits and transaction accounts served as a non-neutral instrument of monetary or fiscal policy in Brazil.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabia A. de Carvalho & Cyntia F. Azevedo, 2008. "The Incidence of Reserve Requirements in Brazil: Do Bank Stockholders Share the Burden?," Working Papers Series 160, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:bcb:wpaper:160
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1985. "Using daily stock returns : The case of event studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-31, March.
    2. Fabozzi, Frank J. & Thurston, Thom B., 1986. "State Taxes and Reserve Requirements as Major Determinants of Yield Spreads among Money Market Instruments," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(04), pages 427-436, December.
    3. Baltensperger, Ernst, 1982. "Reserve Requirements and Economic Stability," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 14(2), pages 205-215, May.
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    6. Tarsila Segalla Afanasieff & Priscilla Maria Villa Lhacer & Márcio I. Nakane, 2002. "The Determinants of Bank Interest Spread in Brazil," Money Affairs, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(2), pages 183-207, July-Dece.
    7. Mandelker, Gershon, 1974. "Risk and return: The case of merging firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 303-335, December.
    8. Fama, Eugene F., 1985. "What's different about banks?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 29-39, January.
    9. Scott E. Hein & Jonathan D. Stewart, 2002. "Reserve requirements: A modern perspective," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q4, pages 41-52.
    10. Osborne, Dale K. & Zaher, Tarek S., 1992. "Reserve requirements, bank share prices, and the uniqueeness of bank loans," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 799-812, August.
    11. Bental, Benjamin & Eden, Benjamin, 2002. "Reserve requirements and output fluctuations," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(8), pages 1597-1620, November.
    12. Black, Fischer, 1975. "Bank funds management in an efficient market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 323-339, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects Of Reserve Requirements," EcoMod2012 3850, EcoMod.
    2. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "Reserve Requirements for Price and Financial Stability: When Are They Effective?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 8(1), pages 65-114, March.
    3. Fabia Carvalho & Fabia A. de Carvalho & Silvio Michael de Azevedo Costa & Marcos Ribeiro de Castro, 2013. "Traditional and matter-of-fact financial frictions in a DSGE model for Brazil: the role of macroprudential instruments and monetary policy," EcoMod2013 5145, EcoMod.
    4. Mahir Binici & Bülent Köksal, 2013. "Do Bank Stockholders Share the Burden of Required Reserve Tax? Evidence from Turkey," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(4), pages 46-73, July.
    5. Bank for International Settlements, 2012. "Operationalising the selection and application of macroprudential instruments," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 48.
    6. Cañón, Carlos & Margaretic, Paula, 2014. "Correlated bank runs, interbank markets and reserve requirements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 515-533.
    7. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements," WIFO Working Papers 420, WIFO.
    8. Ramos-Tallada, Julio, 2015. "Bank risks, monetary shocks and the credit channel in Brazil: Identification and evidence from panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 135-161.
    9. Koray Alper & S. Tolga Tiryaki, 2011. "Zorunlu Karsiliklarin Para Politikasindaki Yeri," CBT Research Notes in Economics 1108, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    10. Patrice Robitaille, 2011. "Liquidity and reserve requirements in Brazil," International Finance Discussion Papers 1021, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    11. Fabia A. de Carvalho & Marcos R. Castro, 2015. "Foreign Capital Flows, Credit Growth and Macroprudential Policy in a DSGE Model with Traditional and Matter-of-Fact Financial Frictions," Working Papers Series 387, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    12. Glocker, Christian & Towbin, Pascal, 2015. "Reserve requirements as a macroprudential instrument – Empirical evidence from Brazil," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 158-176.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook

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