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State Taxes and Reserve Requirements as Major Determinants of Yield Spreads among Money Market Instruments

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  • Fabozzi, Frank J.
  • Thurston, Thom B.

Abstract

Empirical studies and much marketplace opinion have it that the spread between private money market rates and the U.S. Treasury bill rate of comparable maturity is due to differential default risk, liquidity risk, and relative supplies. This paper presents an argument and empirical evidence that the bulk of the systematic and medium-term differential between privates rates—in this case, domestic CDs, commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, and Eurodollar CDs—and the T-bill rate is due to the exemption of interest on Treasury securities from state and local taxation. In the case of Eurodollar CDs, the additional and major systematic factor explaining the spread ( vis a vis T-bills) is the exemption of Eurodollar CDs from the Federal Reserve's “tax” via reserve requirements. An empirical section confirms the role of standard default risk, liquidity risk, and market “absorption” variables in determining short-term deviations from tax-adjusted parity. The taxadjusted parity condition, however, remains the major systematic and medium-term determinant—certainly more important than has been suggested previously in the literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabozzi, Frank J. & Thurston, Thom B., 1986. "State Taxes and Reserve Requirements as Major Determinants of Yield Spreads among Money Market Instruments," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(04), pages 427-436, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:21:y:1986:i:04:p:427-436_01
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    Cited by:

    1. Demirguc, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1999. "Determinants of Commercial Bank Interest Margins and Profitability: Some International Evidence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 379-408, May.
    2. Mahir Binici & Bülent Köksal, 2013. "Do Bank Stockholders Share the Burden of Required Reserve Tax? Evidence from Turkey," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(4), pages 46-73, July.
    3. Fabia Aparecida de Carvalho & Cyntia F. Azevedo, 2008. "The incidence of reserve requirements in Brazil: Do bank stockholders share the burden?," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 11, pages 61-90, May.
    4. Rocío Betancourt & Hernando Vargas, 2009. "Encajes bancarios y tasas de interés," Revista ESPE - ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 27(59), pages 158-186, June.
    5. Jonathan D. Stewart & Scott E. Hein, 2002. "An Investigation of the Effect of the 1990 Reserve Requirement Change on Financial Asset Prices," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 25(3), pages 367-382.
    6. Terrance Jalbert & Jonathan Stewart & Mercedes Jalbert, 2012. "When Do Costa Rica National Banks Respond To Reserve Requirement Changes?," The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, The Institute for Business and Finance Research, vol. 6(3), pages 89-101.
    7. Xiaohui Zhang & Zhihong Ji & Yong Cui, 2009. "Reserve requirement, reserve requirement tax and money control in China: 1984–2007," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer;Higher Education Press, vol. 4(3), pages 361-383, September.
    8. Bashir, Abdel-Hameed M., 2003. "Determinants Of Profitability In Islamic Banks: Some Evidence From The Middle East," Islamic Economic Studies, The Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI), vol. 11, pages 32-57.

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