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The Costs of Point-of-Sale Payments in Canada

Author

Listed:
  • Anneke Kosse
  • Heng Chen
  • Marie-Hélène Felt
  • Valéry Dongmo Jiongo
  • Kerry Nield
  • Angelika Welte

Abstract

This study provides insight into the costs of cash, debit card and credit card payments made at the point of sale in Canada in 2014. For each payment method, it examines the total resource costs, which capture the overall use of resources by society as a whole. Using extensive survey data from retailers, financial institutions and cash transportation companies as well as internal and external data sources, the results show that the resource costs of payments in Canada are non-negligible (0.78 per cent of GDP). Credit cards are most costly in terms of resource costs per transaction, while cash carries the highest resource costs per dollar transacted. Debit cards are the least costly, both in terms of costs per transaction and costs per dollar in sales. The study also demonstrates how the costs vary with transaction sizes. Considering the variable resource costs only, cash is found to be cheapest for transactions up to $6, while debit cards are the least costly for transactions larger than $6. The study also looks into the total private costs, which are the costs incurred by each stakeholder, thereby providing insight into how costs are affecting the use and acceptance of payment methods.

Suggested Citation

  • Anneke Kosse & Heng Chen & Marie-Hélène Felt & Valéry Dongmo Jiongo & Kerry Nield & Angelika Welte, 2017. "The Costs of Point-of-Sale Payments in Canada," Discussion Papers 17-4, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocadp:17-4
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. John Bagnall & David Bounie & Kim P. Huynh & Anneke Kosse & Tobias Schmidt & Scott Schuh, 2016. "Consumer Cash Usage: A Cross-Country Comparison with Payment Diary Survey Data," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(4), pages 1-61, December.
    2. Carlos Arango & Angelika Welte, 2012. "The Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Methodology and Key Results," Discussion Papers 12-6, Bank of Canada.
    3. Carlos Arango & Kim Huynh & Ben Fung & Gerald Stuber, 2012. "The Changing Landscape for Retail Payments in Canada and the Implications for the Demand for Cash," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2012(Autumn), pages 31-40.
    4. Arango, Carlos & Huynh, Kim P. & Sabetti, Leonard, 2015. "Consumer payment choice: Merchant card acceptance versus pricing incentives," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 130-141.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Marie-Hélène Felt & Fumiko Hayashi & Joanna Stavins & Angelika Welte, 2020. "Distributional Effects of Payment Card Pricing and Merchant Cost Pass-through in the United States and Canada," Working Papers 20-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    2. Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald & Helmut Stix, 2018. "How Austrians bank and pay in an increasingly digitalized world – results from an OeNB survey," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q3/18, pages 52-89.
    3. Marie-Hélène Felt & Fumiko Hayashi & Joanna Stavins & Angelika Welte, 2021. "Distributional Effects of Payment Card Pricing and Merchant Cost Pass-through in Canada and the United States," Staff Working Papers 21-8, Bank of Canada.
    4. Gradon Nicholls, 2017. "Bitcoin awareness and usage in Canada," Canadian Stata Users' Group Meetings 2017 08, Stata Users Group.
    5. Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson, 2019. "2018 Merchant Acceptance Survey," Staff Analytical Notes 2019-31, Bank of Canada.
    6. Carin van der Cruijsen & Joris Knoben, 2018. "Ctrl+C Ctrl+pay: Do people mirror payment behaviour of their peers?," DNB Working Papers 611, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    7. Geneviève Vallée, 2018. "How Long Does It Take You to Pay? A Duration Study of Canadian Retail Transaction Payment Times," Staff Working Papers 18-46, Bank of Canada.
    8. Engert, Walter & Fung, Ben & Segendorf, Björn, 2019. "A Tale of Two Countries: Cash Demand in Canada and Sweden," Working Paper Series 376, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    9. Joanna Stavins, 2021. "Payments Evolution from Paper to Electronic: Bill Payments and Purchases," Working Papers 21-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    10. Walter Engert & Ben Fung & Björn Segendorf, 2019. "A Tale of Two Countries: Cash Demand in Canada and Sweden," Discussion Papers 2019-7, Bank of Canada.
    11. Eun Young Oh & Shuonan Zhang, 2020. "Central bank digital currency and informal economy," Working Papers in Economics & Finance 2020-11, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth Business School, Economics and Finance Subject Group.
    12. Valéry Dongmo Jiongo, 2017. "The Bank of Canada 2015 Retailer Survey on the Cost of Payment Methods: Estimation of the Total Private Cost for Large Businesses," Technical Reports 110, Bank of Canada.
    13. Oz Shy, 2020. "Low-Income Consumers and Payment Choice," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2020-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    14. Anton Schautzer & Helmut Stix, 2019. "Approaching 20 years of euro cash in Austria: What has changed, and what’s next?," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q1-Q2/19, pages 99-112.
    15. Walter Engert & Ben Fung, 2017. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Motivations and Implications," Discussion Papers 17-16, Bank of Canada.
    16. Anneke Kosse, 2021. "An Empirical Analysis of Bill Payment Choices," Staff Working Papers 21-23, Bank of Canada.
    17. Martin Brown & Nicole Hentschel & Hannes Mettler & Helmut Stix, 2020. "Financial Innovation, Payment Choice and Cash Demand – Causal Evidence from the Staggered Introduction of Contactless Debit Cards," Working Papers 230, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    18. Kim Huynh & Jozsef Molnar & Oleksandr Shcherbakov & Qinghui Yu, 2020. "Demand for Payment Services and Consumer Welfare: The Introduction of a Central Bank Digital Currency," Staff Working Papers 20-7, Bank of Canada.
    19. Angelika Welte & Jozsef Molnar, 2020. "The Market for Acquiring Card Payments from Small and Medium-Sized Canadian Merchants," Discussion Papers 2020-5, Bank of Canada.
    20. Heng Chen & Rallye Shen, 2017. "The Bank of Canada 2015 Retailer Survey on the Cost of Payment Methods: Calibration for Single-Location Retailers," Technical Reports 109, Bank of Canada.
    21. Frank van der Horst & Jelle Miedema & Joshua Snell & Jan Theeuwes, 2020. "Banknote verification relies on vision, feel and a single second," DNB Working Papers 680, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    22. Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Oleksandr Shcherbakov, 2019. "Explaining the Interplay Between Merchant Acceptance and Consumer Adoption in Two-Sided Markets for Payment Methods," Staff Working Papers 19-32, Bank of Canada.
    23. Shy, Oz, 2020. "Low-income consumers and payment choice," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(4), pages 292-300.
    24. Ben Fung & Kim Huynh & Kerry Nield & Angelika Welte, 2018. "Merchant Acceptance of Cash and Credit Cards at the Point of Sale," Staff Analytical Notes 2018-1, Bank of Canada.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank notes; Financial Institutions; Payment clearing and settlement systemsing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

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