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Cash Management and Payment Choices: A Simulation Model with International Comparisons

  • Carlos Arango


  • Yassine Bouhdaouiz


  • David Bounie


  • Martina Eschelbach


  • LOla Hernández


Despite various payment innovations, today, cash is still heavily used to pay for low-value purchases. This paper develops a simulation model to test whether standard implications of the theory on cash management and payment choices can explain the use of payment instruments by transaction size. In particular, using diary survey data from Canada, France, Germany and the Netherlands, we test the assumption that cash is still the most e cient payment instrument, and the idea that people hold cash for precautionary reasons when facing uncertainty about their future purchases. The results of the simulations show that these two factors are signicant determinants of the high shares of low-value cash payments in Canada, France and Germany. Yet, they are not so crucial in the Netherlands, which exhibits a signicant share of low-value card transactions. We discuss how the dierences in payment markets across countries may explain the performance of the model.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 804.

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Length: 23
Date of creation: Jan 2014
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:804
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  1. John Bagnall & Darren Flood, 2011. "Cash Use in Australia: New Survey Evidence," RBA Bulletin, Reserve Bank of Australia, pages 55-62, September.
  2. Fernando Alvarez & Francesco Lippi, 2007. "Financial Innovation and the Transactions Demand for Cash," EIEF Working Papers Series 0807, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Sep 2007.
  3. Whitesell, William C, 1992. "Deposit Banks and the Market for Payment Media," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 24(4), pages 483-98, November.
  4. Bagnall, John & Bounie, David & Huynh, Kim P. & Kosse, Anneke & Schmidt, Tobias & Schuh, Scott & Stix, Helmut, 2014. "Consumer cash usage: A cross-country comparison with payment diary survey data," Discussion Papers 13/2014, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  5. Nicole Jonker, 2013. "Social costs of POS payments in the Netherlands 2002-2012: Efficiency gains from increased debit card usage," DNB Occasional Studies 1102, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  6. Eppen, Gary D & Fama, Eugene F, 1969. "Cash Balance and Simple Dynamic Portfolio Problems with Proportional Costs," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 10(2), pages 119-33, June.
  7. Shy, Oz & Tarkka, Juha, 2002. "The Market for Electronic Cash Cards," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(2), pages 299-314, May.
  8. Carlos Arango & Angelika Welte, 2012. "The Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Methodology and Key Results," Discussion Papers 12-6, Bank of Canada.
  9. Milbourne, Ross, 1983. "Optimal Money Holding under Uncertainty," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 24(3), pages 685-98, October.
  10. Yassine Bouhdaoui & David Bounie, 2012. "Modeling the Share of Cash Payments in the Economy: An Application to France," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 8(4), pages 175-195, December.
  11. Bolt, Wilko & Jonker, Nicole & van Renselaar, Corry, 2010. "Incentives at the counter: An empirical analysis of surcharging card payments and payment behaviour in the Netherlands," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1738-1744, August.
  12. Peter Mooslechner & Helmut Stix & Karin Wagner, 2012. "The Use of Payment Instruments in Austria - A Study Based on Survey Data from 1996 to 2011," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 53–77.
  13. Ron Borzekowski & Elizabeth K. Kiser & Shaista Ahmed, 2006. "Consumers' use of debit cards: patterns, preferences, and price response," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2006-16, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Whitesell, William C, 1989. "The Demand for Currency versus Debitable Accounts: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(2), pages 246-57, May.
  15. Ben Fung & Kim Huynh & Leonard Sabetti, 2012. "The Impact of Retail Payment Innovations on Cash Usage," Staff Working Papers 12-14, Bank of Canada.
  16. Kosse, Anneke & Jansen, David-Jan, 2013. "Choosing how to pay: The influence of foreign backgrounds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 989-998.
  17. Nicole Jonker & Anneke Kosse & Lola Hern�ndez, 2012. "Cash usage in the Netherlands: How much, where, when, who and whenever one wants?," DNB Occasional Studies 1002, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
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