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Factores de demanda que influyen en la Inclusion Financiera en Mexico. Analisis de las barreras a partir de la ENIF

  • Carmen Hoyo
  • Ximena Pena
  • David Tuesta

En Mexico el 62 por 100 de los adultos entre 18 y 70 anos no tiene productos de ahorro o de credito en instituciones financieras formales, a pesar de que el acceso a traves de distintos canales esta disponible para el 97 por 100 de los adultos. La diferencia entre la oferta y el uso efectivo del sistema financiero supone la existencia de barreras de demanda que han sido poco exploradas hasta el momento. Gracias al interes del gobierno mexicano para medir y evaluar la inclusion financiera desde el punto de vista de la oferta y de la demanda, en el ano 2012 en Mexico se aplico la primera Encuesta Nacional de Inclusióon Financiera (ENIF), la cual se constituye en un referente en America Latina para el estudio de la demanda de servicios financieros. Con los datos de la ENIF, a partir de un modelo probit, analizamos los factores socioeconomicos que desde el punto de vista de la demanda individual influyen en la decision de no usar los servicios financieros formales de ahorro o credito en Mexico. De acuerdo con el analisis realizado, la insuficiencia o variabilidad del ingreso y la autoexclusion son las barreras mas importantes en el mercado mexicano, las cuales están influidas por tres tipos de factores: 1. variables que denotan vulnerabilidad individual como el nivel de ingresos, el genero, la educacion y la ocupacion; 2. Variable geografica sobre el tamano de la comunidad donde habita el individuo (localidades con menos de 15 mil habitantes o mas de 15 mil habitantes); y 3. variables que parecen relacionarse con la preferencia por el mercado financiero informal, como la capacidad de responder a shocks exogenos y el pertenecer a hogares con capacidad de ahorro.

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Paper provided by BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department in its series Working Papers with number 1336.

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Length: 20 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bbv:wpaper:1336
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  1. Johnson, Susan, 2004. "Gender Norms in Financial Markets: Evidence from Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1355-1374, August.
  2. Pascaline Dupas & Jonathan Robinson, 2009. "Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya," NBER Working Papers 14693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Dean Karlan & Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan & Jonathan Zinman, 2013. "Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda," Working Papers 1027, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  4. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  5. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
  6. Anzoategui, Diego & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez, 2011. "Remittances and financial inclusion : evidence from El Salvador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5839, The World Bank.
  7. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, 2008. "Access to Finance: An Unfinished Agenda," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 383-396, November.
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