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Factores de demanda que influyen en la Inclusion Financiera en Mexico. Analisis de las barreras a partir de la ENIF

Author

Listed:
  • Carmen Hoyo
  • Ximena Pena
  • David Tuesta

Abstract

En Mexico el 62 por 100 de los adultos entre 18 y 70 anos no tiene productos de ahorro o de credito en instituciones financieras formales, a pesar de que el acceso a traves de distintos canales esta disponible para el 97 por 100 de los adultos. La diferencia entre la oferta y el uso efectivo del sistema financiero supone la existencia de barreras de demanda que han sido poco exploradas hasta el momento. Gracias al interes del gobierno mexicano para medir y evaluar la inclusion financiera desde el punto de vista de la oferta y de la demanda, en el ano 2012 en Mexico se aplico la primera Encuesta Nacional de Inclusióon Financiera (ENIF), la cual se constituye en un referente en America Latina para el estudio de la demanda de servicios financieros. Con los datos de la ENIF, a partir de un modelo probit, analizamos los factores socioeconomicos que desde el punto de vista de la demanda individual influyen en la decision de no usar los servicios financieros formales de ahorro o credito en Mexico. De acuerdo con el analisis realizado, la insuficiencia o variabilidad del ingreso y la autoexclusion son las barreras mas importantes en el mercado mexicano, las cuales están influidas por tres tipos de factores: 1. variables que denotan vulnerabilidad individual como el nivel de ingresos, el genero, la educacion y la ocupacion; 2. Variable geografica sobre el tamano de la comunidad donde habita el individuo (localidades con menos de 15 mil habitantes o mas de 15 mil habitantes); y 3. variables que parecen relacionarse con la preferencia por el mercado financiero informal, como la capacidad de responder a shocks exogenos y el pertenecer a hogares con capacidad de ahorro.

Suggested Citation

  • Carmen Hoyo & Ximena Pena & David Tuesta, 2013. "Factores de demanda que influyen en la Inclusion Financiera en Mexico. Analisis de las barreras a partir de la ENIF," Working Papers 1336, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:bbv:wpaper:1336
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Anzoategui, Diego & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Martínez Pería, María Soledad, 2014. "Remittances and Financial Inclusion: Evidence from El Salvador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 338-349.
    2. Pascaline Dupas & Jonathan Robinson, 2013. "Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 163-192, January.
    3. Andrés Murcia Pabón, 2007. "Determinantes Del Acceso Al Crédito De Los Hogares Colombianos," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 25(55), pages 40-83, December.
    4. Dean Karlan & Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan & Jonathan Zinman, 2014. "Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(1), pages 36-78, March.
    5. Johnson, Susan, 2004. "Gender Norms in Financial Markets: Evidence from Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1355-1374, August.
    6. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, 2008. "Access to Finance: An Unfinished Agenda," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 383-396, November.
    7. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    8. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ximena Pena & Carmen Hoyo & David Tuesta, 2014. "Determinantes de la inclusion financiera en Mexico a partir de la ENIF 2012," Working Papers 1414, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    inclusion financiera; instituciones financieras; barreras; finanzas personales;

    JEL classification:

    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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