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The Municipal Transfer System in Nicaragua: Evaluation and Proposals for Reform

For almost 20 years, the Nicaraguan authorities have been implementing a fiscal decentralization process to devolve an increasing degree of autonomy to municipalities. As a part of this process, and mainly due to the efforts of the Association of Municipalities of Nicaragua (AMUNIC is the acronym in Spanish), the first municipal transfers were approved in just 1999. Later, the funds available for the municipalities were increased gradually as a percentage of the General Budget (PGR), until in August 2003 the new Law of Municipal Transfers set this percentage at 4% of the total central government tax revenues in 2004, and stated that it should be increased at least by 0,5% per year up to 10% of the PGR in 2010. In 2005 the transfer program corresponded to 5% of the PGR, whereas in the present year the percentage increased to 6%.

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Paper provided by International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University in its series International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU with number paper0801.

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Length: 93 pages
Date of creation: 01 Feb 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper0801
Contact details of provider: Phone: 404-413-0235
Fax: 404-413-0244
Web page: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/index.html

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  1. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Andrey Timofeev, 2005. "Choosing between Centralized and Decentralized Models of Tax Administration," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0502, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  2. Robin Boadway, 2003. "The Theory and Practice of Equalization," Working Papers 1016, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  3. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Andrey Timofeev & Jameson Boex, 2006. "Reforming Regional-Local Finance in Russia," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6925, October.
  4. Jameson Boex & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2004. "Designing Intergovernmental Equalization Transfers with Imperfect Data: Concepts, Practices, and Lessons," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0421, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  5. Richard Bird & Pierre-Pascal Gendron, 2000. "CVAT, VIVAT, and Dual VAT: Vertical ``Sharing'' and Interstate Trade," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 7(6), pages 753-761, December.
  6. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 1998. "Principios Para Una Estrategia De Descentralizacirn Fiscal En Nicaragua," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper9705, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  7. Richard M Bird & Andrey V Tarasov, 2004. "Closing the gap: fiscal imbalances and intergovernmental transfers in developed federations," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 22(1), pages 77-102, February.
  8. Dahlby, Bev & Wilson, Leonard S., 2003. "Vertical fiscal externalities in a federation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(5-6), pages 917-930, May.
  9. Michael Keen, 1998. "Vertical Tax Externalities in the Theory of Fiscal Federalism," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(3), pages 454-485, September.
  10. Jonathan A. Rodden & Gunnar S. Eskeland (ed.), 2003. "Fiscal Decentralization and the Challenge of Hard Budget Constraints," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262182297, June.
  11. Boadway, Robin & Marchand, Maurice & Vigneault, Marianne, 1998. "The consequences of overlapping tax bases for redistribution and public spending in a federation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 453-478, June.
  12. Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge & McNab, Robert M., 2003. "Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 1597-1616, September.
  13. Bev Dahlby, 1996. "Fiscal externalities and the design of intergovernmental grants," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 397-412, July.
  14. McLure, Charles E. Jr., 2001. "The Tax Assignment Problem: Ruminations on How Theory and Practice Depend on History," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 54(n. 2), pages 339-64, June.
  15. Wildasin, David E., 1989. "Interjurisdictional capital mobility: Fiscal externality and a corrective subsidy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 193-212, March.
  16. Wilson, John Douglas, 1999. "Theories of Tax Competition," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 2), pages 269-304, June.
  17. Roy Bahl & Bayar Tumennasan, 2002. "How Should Revenues From Natural Resources Be Shared?," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0214, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  18. Gordon, Roger H, 1983. "An Optimal Taxation Approach to Fiscal Federalism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(4), pages 567-86, November.
  19. Arnott, Richard & Grieson, Ronald E., 1981. "Optimal fiscal policy for a state or local government," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 23-48, January.
  20. Richard Bird & Pierre Gendron, 1998. "Dual VATs and Cross-Border Trade: Two Problems, One Solution?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 429-442, July.
  21. James Alm & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2002. "On the Use of Budgetary Norms as a Tool for Fiscal Management," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0215, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  22. Michael Keen, 2000. "VIVAT, CVAT and All That; New Forms of Value-Added Tax for Federal Systems," IMF Working Papers 00/83, International Monetary Fund.
  23. Ebel, Robert D. & Yilmaz, Serdar, 2002. "On the measurement and impact of fiscal decentralization," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2809, The World Bank.
  24. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521029018 is not listed on IDEAS
  25. Wildasin, David E., 1983. "The welfare effects of intergovernmental grants in an economy with independent jurisdictions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 147-164, March.
  26. Richard M. Bird & Robert D. Ebel, 2005. "Subsidiarity, Solidarity, and Asymmetry," International Tax Program Papers 0509, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
  27. Charles E. McLure, Jr. & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 1998. "Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in Vietnam," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper9802, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  28. Julio López Laborda & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Carlos Monasterio Escudero, 2006. "The Practice of Fiscal Federalism in Spain," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0623, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
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