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Endogenous versus Exogenous Crashes in Financial Markets

Author

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  • A. Johansen

    (Riso National Lab., Denmark)

  • D. Sornette

    (UCLA and CNRS-Univ. Nice)

Abstract

We perform an extended analysis of the distribution of drawdowns in the two leading exchange markets (US dollar against the Deutsmark and against the Yen), in the major world stock markets, in the U.S. and Japanese bond market and in the gold market, by introducing the concept of ``coarse-grained drawdowns,'' which allows for a certain degree of fuzziness in the definition of cumulative losses and improves on the statistics of our previous results on the existence of ``outliers'' or ``kings.'' Then, for each identified outlier, we check whether log-periodic power law signatures (LPPS) are present and take the existence of LPPS as the qualifying signature for an endogenous crash: this is because a drawdown outlier is seen as the end of a speculative unsustainable accelerating bubble generated endogenously. In the absence of LPPS, we are able to identify what seems to have been the relevant historical event, i.e., a new piece of information of such magnitude and impact that it is seems reasonable to attribute the crash to it, in agreement with the standard view of the efficient market hypothesis. Such drawdown outliers are classified as having an exogenous origin. Globally over all the markets analyzed, we identify 49 outliers, of which 25 are classified as endogenous, 22 as exogeneous and 2 as associated with the Japanese anti-bubble. Restricting to the world market indices, we find 31 outliers, of which 19 are endogenous, 10 are exogenous and 2 are associated with the Japanese anti-bubble. The combination of the two proposed detection techniques, one for drawdown outliers and the second for LPPS, provides a novel and systematic taxonomy of crashes further subtantiating the importance of LPPS.

Suggested Citation

  • A. Johansen & D. Sornette, 2002. "Endogenous versus Exogenous Crashes in Financial Markets," Papers cond-mat/0210509, arXiv.org.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:cond-mat/0210509
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. D. Sornette & A. Helmstetter, 2002. "Endogeneous Versus Exogeneous Shocks in Systems with Memory," Papers cond-mat/0206047, arXiv.org.
    2. D. Sornette & A. Johansen, 2001. "Significance of log-periodic precursors to financial crashes," Papers cond-mat/0106520, arXiv.org.
    3. D. Sornette & W. -X. Zhou, 2002. "The US 2000-2002 Market Descent: How Much Longer and Deeper?," Papers cond-mat/0209065, arXiv.org.
    4. Fabrizio Lillo & Rosario N. Mantegna, 2000. "Symmetry alteration of ensemble return distribution in crash and rally days of financial markets," Papers cond-mat/0002438, arXiv.org.
    5. Coe, Patrick J, 2002. "Financial Crisis and the Great Depression: A Regime Switching Approach," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 76-93, February.
    6. Sornette, Didier & Johansen, Anders, 1998. "A hierarchical model of financial crashes," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 261(3), pages 581-598.
    7. D. Sornette & A. Johansen, 2001. "Significance of log-periodic precursors to financial crashes," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(4), pages 452-471.
    8. Sanford J. Grossman & Zhongquan Zhou, 1993. "Optimal Investment Strategies For Controlling Drawdowns," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(3), pages 241-276.
    9. D. Sornette & Y. Malevergne & J. F. Muzy, 2002. "Volatility fingerprints of large shocks: Endogeneous versus exogeneous," Papers cond-mat/0204626, arXiv.org.
    10. David H. Cutler & James M. Poterba & Lawrence H. Summers, 1988. "What Moves Stock Prices?," Working papers 487, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    11. Anders Johansen & Didier Sornette, 2000. "The Nasdaq crash of April 2000: Yet another example of log-periodicity in a speculative bubble ending in a crash," Papers cond-mat/0004263, arXiv.org, revised May 2000.
    12. Chang-Jin Kim & Charles R. Nelson, 1999. "State-Space Models with Regime Switching: Classical and Gibbs-Sampling Approaches with Applications," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262112388, March.
    13. Fama, Eugene F, 1991. " Efficient Capital Markets: II," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(5), pages 1575-1617, December.
    14. A. Johansen & D. Sornette, 1998. "Stock market crashes are outliers," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 1(2), pages 141-143, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Zhou, Wei-Xing & Sornette, Didier, 2003. "Renormalization group analysis of the 2000–2002 anti-bubble in the US S&P500 index: explanation of the hierarchy of five crashes and prediction," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 330(3), pages 584-604.
    2. D. Sornette & W. -X. Zhou, 2003. "The US 2000-2003 Market Descent: Clarifications," Papers cond-mat/0305004, arXiv.org.
    3. Tanya Araujo & Francisco Louca, 2007. "The geometry of crashes. A measure of the dynamics of stock market crises," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 63-74.
    4. Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose & Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos, 2004. "Finite-time singularities in the dynamics of Mexican financial crises," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 331(1), pages 253-268.
    5. Adri'an Carro & Ra'ul Toral & Maxi San Miguel, 2015. "Markets, herding and response to external information," Papers 1506.03708, arXiv.org, revised Jun 2015.
    6. Jeong-Ryeol Kurz-Kim, 2012. "Early warning indicator for financial crashes using the log periodic power law," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(15), pages 1465-1469, October.
    7. repec:eee:phsmap:v:486:y:2017:i:c:p:618-627 is not listed on IDEAS

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