The Network Structure of Economic Output
Much of the analysis of economic growth has focused on the study of aggregate output. Here, we deviate from this tradition and look instead at the structure of output embodied in the network connecting countries to the products that they export.We characterize this network using four structural features: the negative relationship between the diversification of a country and the average ubiquity of its exports, and the non-normal distributions for product ubiquity, country diversification and product co-export. We model the structure of the network by assuming that products require a large number of non-tradable inputs, or capabilities, and that countries differ in the completeness of the set of capabilities they have. We solve the model assuming that the probability that a country has a capability and that a product requires a capability are constant and calibrate it to the data to find that it accounts well for all of the network features except for the heterogeneity in the distribution of country diversification. In the light of the model, this is evidence of a large heterogeneity in the distribution of capabilities across countries. Finally, we show that the model implies that the increase in diversification that is expected from the accumulation of a small number of capabilities is small for countries that have a few of them and large for those with many. This implies that the forces that help drive divergence in product diversity increase with the complexity of the global economy when capabilities travel poorly.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2011|
|Date of revision:||Feb 2012|
|Publication status:||Published in Journal of Economic Growth (2011) 16:309-342|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://arxiv.org/|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Aghion, P. & Howitt, P., 1989.
"A Model Of Growth Through Creative Destruction,"
527, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction," Scholarly Articles 12490578, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Aghion, P. & Howitt, P., 1989. "A Model Of Growth Through Creative Destruction," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 8904, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
- Philippe Aghion & Peter Howitt, 1990. "A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction," NBER Working Papers 3223, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Aghion, P. & Howitt, P., 1990. "A Model Of Growth Through Creative Destruction," DELTA Working Papers 90-12, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Romer, Paul M, 1986.
"Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
- Rodriguez-Clare, Andres, 2007.
"Clusters and comparative advantage: Implications for industrial policy,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 43-57, January.
- Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, 2005. "Clusters and Comparative Advantage: Implications for Industrial Policy," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6830, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, 2005. "Clusters and Comparative Advantage: Implications for Industrial Policy," Research Department Publications 4391, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Cesar A. Hidalgo & Ricardo Hausmann, 2009. "The Building Blocks of Economic Complexity," Papers 0909.3890, arXiv.org.
- Martin L. Weitzman, 1995.
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1722, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977.
"Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1988.
"Industrialization and the Big Push,"
NBER Working Papers
2708, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2010.
"BACI: International Trade Database at the Product-Level. The 1994-2007 Version,"
2010-23, CEPII research center.
- Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2004. "Notes on BACI (analytical database of international trade). 1989-2002 version," MPRA Paper 32401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Daron Acemoglu & Pol Antràs & Elhanan Helpman, 2007.
"Contracts and Technology Adoption,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 916-943, June.
- Paul Krugman, 2009. "The Increasing Returns Revolution in Trade and Geography," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 561-71, June.
- Tomoya Mori & Koji Nishikimi & Tony E. Smith, 2008. "The Number-Average Size Rule: A New Empirical Relationship Between Industrial Location And City Size," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 165-211.
- Ricardo Hausmann & Francisco Rodríguez & Rodrigo Wagner, 2006.
Wesleyan Economics Working Papers
2006-024, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1989.
"Quality Ledders In The Theory Of Growth,"
148, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Marc J. Melitz, 2003.
"The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity,"
Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
- Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Melitz, Marc J, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Robert E. Lipsey & Haiyan Deng & Alyson C. Ma & Hengyong Mo, 2005. "World Trade Flows: 1962-2000," NBER Working Papers 11040, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pier Saviotti & Koen Frenken, 2008. "Export variety and the economic performance of countries," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 201-218, April.
- C. A. Hidalgo & B. Klinger & A. -L. Barabasi & R. Hausmann, 2007. "The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations," Papers 0708.2090, arXiv.org.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1101.1707. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.