Timing of Prenatal Smoking Cessation or Reduction and Infant Birth Weight: Evidence from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study
Objectives: Smoking during pregnancy is a key preventable risk contributor to poor infant health. Our study presents a full dynamic relationship between the timing of prenatal smoking cessation or reduction and infant birth weight. Methods: Using a large representative dataset of birth cohort in the United Kingdom, we apply multiple linear regressions to examine how smoking cessation or reduction at different stages especially different months of pregnancy affects infant birth weight. For robustness checks, a rich set of covariates are controlled and a series of variable selection procedures are used. Results: We find robust evidence that mothers who quit smoking before the fourth month of pregnancy have infants of the same weight as those of nonsmokers. However, cessation after the fourth month or smoking beyond this threshold month is associated with substantially lower infant birth weights. Two third of the total adverse smoking impact on infant birth weight occurs in the second trimester. Our study also shows heavy persistent smokers should cut smoking intensity before the fourth month during pregnancy, in order to deliver infants as heavy as those born to persistent light smokers. Conclusions: Overall, our research suggests that the cost effectiveness of prenatal smoking cessation services can be significantly improved, if they can encourage more pregnant women to quit or reduce smoking by the end of the first trimester. Promoting timely smoking cessation or reduction can help policy makers and medical practitioners reduce the huge healthcare costs of poor birth outcomes attributable to prenatal smoking. Key Words: Prenatal Smoking; Timing of Smoking Cessation; Timing of Smoking Reduction; Infant Birth Weight
|Date of creation:||2013|
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- Paul J. Devereux & Sandra E. Black & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2007.
"From the cradle to the labor market? The effect of birth weight on adult outcomes,"
Open Access publications
10197/317, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
- Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2007. "From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(1), pages 409-439.
- Sandra E. Black & Paul Devereux & Kjell Salvanes, 2006. "From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes," CEE Discussion Papers 0061, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
- Paul J. Devereux & Sandra E. Black & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2007. "From the cradle to the labor market? The effect of birth weight on adult outcomes," Open Access publications 10197/316, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
- Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell Salvanes, 2005. "From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 11796, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sandra E. Black & Paul Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2007. "From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes," Working Papers 200718, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
- Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2006. "From the cradle to the labor market? The effect of birth weight on adult outcomes," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19425, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Black, Sandra E. & Devereux, Paul J. & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2005. "From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 1864, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Petrou, Stavros & Hockley, Christine & Mehta, Ziyah & Goldacre, Michael, 2005. "The association between smoking during pregnancy and hospital inpatient costs in childhood," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 60(5), pages 1071-1085, March.
- Jere R. Behrman & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2004. "Returns to Birthweight," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 586-601, May.
- E. Kathleen Adams & Vincent P. Miller & Carla Ernst & Brenda K. Nishimura & Cathy Melvin & Robert Merritt, 2002. "Neonatal health care costs related to smoking during pregnancy," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(3), pages 193-206.
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