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Health and Labor Market Impacts of Twin Birth: Evidence from a Swedish IVF Policy Mandate

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  • Bhalotra, S

    (University of Warwick, CEPR, IEA, IZA, CAGE)

  • Clarke, D

    (University of Chile and IZA)

  • Muhlrad, H

    (Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU))

  • Palme, M

    (Stockholm University)

Abstract

IVF allows women to delay birth and pursue careers, but IVF massively increases the risk of twin birth. There is limited evidence of how having twins influences women’s post-birth careers. We investigate this, leveraging a single embryo transfer (SET) mandate implemented in Sweden in 2003, following which the share of twin births showed a precipitous drop of 70%. Linking birth registers to hospitalization and earnings registers, we identify substantial improvements in maternal and child health and women’s earnings following IVF birth, alongside an increase in subsequent fertility. We provide the first comprehensive evaluation of SET, relevant given the secular rise in IVF births and growing concerns over twin birth risk. We contribute new estimates of the child penalty imposed by twin as opposed to singleton birth, relevant to the secular rise in the global twin birth rate.

Suggested Citation

  • Bhalotra, S & Clarke, D & Muhlrad, H & Palme, M, 2022. "Health and Labor Market Impacts of Twin Birth: Evidence from a Swedish IVF Policy Mandate," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 602, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
  • Handle: RePEc:cge:wacage:602
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    Cited by:

    1. Bhalotra, Sonia & Clarke, Damian, 2022. "Analysis of Twins," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1428, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    2. Bhalotra, Sonia & Clarke, Damian & Walther, Selma, 2022. "Women's Careers and Family Formation," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1120, Global Labor Organization (GLO).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    twins; IVF; single embryo transfer; career costs of children; child penalty; gender wage gap; fertility; maternal health; neonatal health; gender JEL Classification:J13; I11; I12; I38; J24;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets
    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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