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International Monies, Special Drawing Rights, and Supernational Money


  • Pietro Alessandrini

    () (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, MoFiR)

  • Michele Fratianni

    () (Indiana University, Kelly School of Business, Bloomington US, Univ. Plitecnica Marche and MoFiR)


The current international monetary system (IMS) is fragile because the dollar standard is rapidly deteriorating. The dual role the dollar as the dominant international money and national money cannot be easily reconciled because the US monetary authorities face a conflict between pursuing domestic objectives of employment and inflation and maintaining the international public good of a stable money. To strengthen the IMS, China has advocated the revitalization of the Special Drawing Rights (SDRs). But SDRs are neither money nor a claim on any international institution; are issued exogenously without any consideration to countries' financing needs; and can activate international monies only though bilateral transactions. The historical record of SDRs as international reserves is altogether unimpressive. We propose instead the creation of a supernational bank money (SBM) within the institutional setting of a clearing union. This union would be a full-fledged agreement by participating central banks on specific rules of the game, such as size and duration of overdrafts, designation of countries that would have to bear the burden of external adjustment, and coordination of monetary policies objectives and at expense of the maintenance of the international public good. We also discuss structural changes that would make SDRs converge to SBMs.

Suggested Citation

  • Pietro Alessandrini & Michele Fratianni, 2009. "International Monies, Special Drawing Rights, and Supernational Money," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 26, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:anc:wmofir:26

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Ben S. Bernanke, 2007. "Global imbalances: recent developments and prospects," Speech 317, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    7. Michael P. Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter M. Garber, 2005. "An essay on the revived Bretton Woods system," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Feb.
    8. Pietro Alessandrini & Michele Fratianni, 2009. "Resurrecting Keynes to Stabilize the International Monetary System," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 339-358, July.
    9. Michele Fratianni & Andreas Hauskrecht & Aurelio Maccario, 1998. "Dominant Currencies and the Future of the Euro," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 467-492, January.
    10. Fratianni, Michele, 1974. "The Problem of Coexistence of SDRs and a Reserve Currency: Comment," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 6(1), pages 115-118, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Shirai, Sayuri, 2009. "世界経済危機とグローバル・マネーの変動 ―国際経済秩序へのインプリケーションー
      [Global Economic Crisis and Movements of Cross-Border Capital Flows ―Implication to the Global Economic Order―]
      ," MPRA Paper 18619, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Gros, Daniel & Alcidi, Cinzia, 2014. "The Global Economy in 2030: Trends and Strategies for Europe," CEPS Papers 9142, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    3. Jacopo Carmassi & Daniel Gros & Stefano Micossi, 2009. "The Global Financial Crisis: Causes and Cures," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47, pages 977-996, November.
    4. Daniel Gros, 2013. "Becoming Slimmer: Why Europe Needs to Cut Debt and Reduce Leverage," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 14(3), pages 17-24, October.

    More about this item


    Special Drawing Right; international monetary system; international money; supernational bank money;

    JEL classification:

    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

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