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Emerging Issues In Agricultural Trade And The Environment

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  • Runge, C. Ford

Abstract

This paper outlines emerging issues in agricultural trade and the environment. Its intent is to provoke discussion, rather than to capture all of the issues and details that merit analysis. It focuses primarily on "micro" issues rather than global issues such as green house gas emissions or biodiversity, although these are in many respects simply the aggregation of questions that must be resolved by changes in practices and incentives at the farm level. It begins with a description of the stylized facts of trade-environment interactions, arguing that the widely cited "Kuznets function" underscores our ignorance concerning the mechanisms linking growth, trade, and pollution. Especially in agriculture, there is evidence that market and government failures have not yet led to substantial interventions to reduce environmental externalities. The second part of the paper discusses these mechanisms, and raises a set of research questions designed to guide OECD and other investigators toward a more detailed understanding of the linkages from trade to environment in agriculture. The third part of the paper explores the challenges posed for trade policy-making, touching on two of the most important future areas in agriculture: sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and offers some policy principles to advance agricultural sustainability. The final part of the paper raises some of the challenges likely to face the WTO as it grapples with these and other trade-environment issues in the next century.

Suggested Citation

  • Runge, C. Ford, 1998. "Emerging Issues In Agricultural Trade And The Environment," Working Papers 14383, University of Minnesota, Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:umciwp:14383
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14383
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Robert E. B. Lucas, 1994. "International Environmental Indicators: Trade, Income and Endowments," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 46, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
    2. Roberts, Donna, 1998. "Implementation Of The Wto Agreement On The Application Of Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures: The First Two Years," Working Papers 14588, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    3. Josling, Timothy E. & Honma, Masayoshi & Lee, Jaeok & MacLaren, Donald & Miner, William M. & Sumner, Daniel A. & Tangermann, Stefan & Valdes, Alberto, 1994. "The Uruguay Round Agreement On Agriculture: An Evaluation," Commissioned Papers 14621, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    4. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    5. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
    6. Gray, Denice & Krissoff, Barry & Tsigas, Marinos E., 1995. "Western Hemisphere Integration: Trade Policy Reform and Environmental Policy Harmonization," 1995: Economic Integration in the Western Hemisphere Symposium, June 7-9, 1995, San Jose, Costa Rica 50815, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Colyer, Dale, 2004. "Environmental Provisions in Trade Agreements," Conference Papers 19103, West Virginia University, Department of Agricultural Resource Economics.
    2. Runge, C. Ford, 1999. "Stream, River, Delta: Induced Innovation And Environmental Values In Economics And Policy," Working Papers 14465, University of Minnesota, Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.
    3. Colyer, Dale, 2002. "Environmental Impacts Of Agricultural Trade Under Nafta," Conference Papers 19104, West Virginia University, Department of Agricultural Resource Economics.
    4. Romstad, Eirik, 2002. "Policies for Promoting Public Goods in Agriculture," 2002 International Congress, August 28-31, 2002, Zaragoza, Spain 24930, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Runge, C. Ford, 1999. "Beyond The Green Box: A Conceptual Framework For Agricultural Trade And The Environment," Working Papers 14417, University of Minnesota, Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.
    6. Colyer, Dale, 2002. "Environmental Issues In The Ftaa," Conference Papers 19107, West Virginia University, Department of Agricultural Resource Economics.
    7. Zezza, Annalisa, 2002. "The Changing Public Role in Services to Agriculture: The Case of Information," 2002 International Congress, August 28-31, 2002, Zaragoza, Spain 24902, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    8. Moon, Wanki, 2010. "Multifunctional Agriculture, Protectionism, And Prospect Of Trade Liberalization," Journal of Rural Development/Nongchon-Gyeongje, Korea Rural Economic Institute, vol. 33(2), July.

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