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Does Rural Household Income Depend on Neighboring Communities? Evidence from Israel

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  • Kimhi, Ayal

Abstract

In Israel, rural communities are those with up to 2000 residents, and rural areas include only rural communities. This paper explores the dependence of rural incomes on nearby urban areas. This dependence is mostly implied by rural-to-urban or urban-to-rural selective migration (or both). Migration flows can be affected by differential wages, housing costs and other amenities, and by commuting costs and costs of migration. An income generating equation, that includes characteristics of nearby urban communities as well as other spatial indicators among the explanatory variables, is estimated for rural households in Moshav villages using 2006 survey data. The results show that the population of nearby urban communities is significantly associated with rural household per-capita income. In particular, the urban population within 10 km is positively associated with per-capita income, while the urban population within 10 to 40 km is negatively associated with per-capita income. These opposite effects suggest that commuting costs are among the major determinants of the direction of the net migration of high-income households. Surprisingly, other spatial variables, including average per-capita income in nearby urban communities, do not affect rural income significantly.

Suggested Citation

  • Kimhi, Ayal, 2010. "Does Rural Household Income Depend on Neighboring Communities? Evidence from Israel," Discussion Papers 93134, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:huaedp:93134
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93134
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kimhi, Ayal, 1998. "Institutional Environment, Ideological Commitment, and Farmers' Time Allocation: The Case of Israeli Moshavim," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(1), pages 27-44, October.
    2. Hisham S. El-Osta & Ashok K. Mishra & Mitchell J. Morehart, 2007. "Determinants of economic well-being among U.S. farm operator households," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 36(3), pages 291-304, May.
    3. Kim S. So & Peter F. Orazem & Daniel M. Otto, 2001. "The Effects of Housing Prices, Wages, and Commuting Time on Joint Residential and Job Location Choices," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(4), pages 1036-1048.
    4. Bruce L. Gardner, 2005. "Causes of rural economic development," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 32(s1), pages 21-41, January.
    5. Anselin, Luc, 2002. "Under the hood : Issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 247-267, November.
    6. Mark Partridge & Ray D. Bollman & M. Rose Olfert & Alessandro Alasia, 2007. "Riding the Wave of Urban Growth in the Countryside: Spread, Backwash, or Stagnation?," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(2), pages 128-152.
    7. Ayal Kimhi, 2000. "Is Part-Time Farming Really a Step in the Way Out of Agricultural?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(1), pages 38-48.
    8. Tikva Lecker & Yochanan Shachmurove, 1999. "Immigration and socioeconomic gaps: theory and applications," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(5), pages 539-549.
    9. E. D. Gould, 2007. "Cities, Workers, and Wages: A Structural Analysis of the Urban Wage Premium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(2), pages 477-506.
    10. Mitch Renkow, 2003. "Employment Growth, Worker Mobility, and Rural Economic Development," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(2), pages 503-513.
    11. Kimhi, Ayal, 2005. "Economic Well-Being in Rural Communities: The Role of Agriculture," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19341, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
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    Cited by:

    1. Kan, Iddo & Kimhi, Ayal & Kaminski, Jonathan, 2015. "Micro-Macro Impacts of Climate-Change on Agriculture and Food Markets," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211828, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Kan, Iddo & Kimhi, Ayal & Kaminski, Jonathan, 2015. "Climate-Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Markets: Combining a Micro-Level Structural Land-Use Model and a Market-Level Equilibrium Model," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205128, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association;Western Agricultural Economics Association.

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    Keywords

    Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics;

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