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Preissetzung Auf Dem Deutschen Joghurtmarkt: Eine Hedonische Analyse

  • Empen, Janine
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    Die Produktkategorie Joghurt gilt als hoch differenziert. In Deutschland sind über 2000 verschiedene Joghurts in mehr als 250 Produktlinien (z.B. „Almighurt“ von Ehrmann) auf dem Markt erhältlich. Während fast alle Hersteller über ein breites Geschmackssortiment verfügen, ist die Produktion speziellerer Varianten, wie z.B. probiotische oder laktosefreie Joghurts auf wenige, internationale Konzerne oder Nischenmolkereien konzentriert. In diesem Beitrag wird analysiert, inwieweit die Preisgestaltung bei Joghurt anhand der Produkteigenschaften erklärt werden kann und welche Produktattribute von den Marktteilnehmern mit besonders hohen Preisaufschlägen bewertet werden. Dazu wird ein hedonisches Preismodell auf der Basis von Einzelhandelsscannerdaten, welche von 2005 bis 2008 in über 500 Geschäften aus ganz Deutschland wöchentlich erhoben wurden, geschätzt. Als Produktcharakteristika werden sowohl Eigenschaften berücksichtigt, die innerhalb einer Produktlinie variieren (Geschmacksrichtungen), als auch solche, die Produktlinien untereinander abgrenzen (Fettstufen, Verpackungsarten, Markenzugehörigkeit, spezielle Eigenschaften). Insgesamt kann 74 % der Preisvariation durch diese Produktattribute erklärt werden. Der Trend zu einer gesundheitsbewussteren Ernährung spiegelt sich in den Ergebnissen sehr deutlich wider. Probiotische (laktosefreie) Joghurts sind auf Einzelhandelsebene im Durchschnitt rund 15 % (67 %) teurer als naturbelassene Vollfettvarianten. Magerjoghurts (0,1 – 1,4 % Fett) können gegenüber den fettarmen Joghurts (1,5 – 3,4 % Fett) trotz niedrigerer Rohstoffkosten denselben impliziten Preis erzielen. Zudem spielt die Markenzugehörigkeit in der Preissetzung eine wichtige Rolle. Aus den Ergebnissen werden auch Implikationen für die milchverarbeitende Industrie abgeleitet. The yoghurt market shows a high degree of differentiation, innovations are launched on a frequent basis. In Germany, consumers can choose between more than 2000 different varieties. Whereas most manufacturers offer a wide assortment of different flavors, the production of specialties as e.g. probiotic or lactose-free yoghurts is concentrated on multinational food corporations or niche manufacturers. In this study, the question is addressed whether variations in yoghurt prices can be attributed to product characteristics. Furthermore, product attributes leading to particularly high price premiums are identified. We adopt a hedonic price model und use retail scanner data, which was collected from 2005 to 2008 in over 500 retail stores throughout Germany. Employing flavor, fat content, package type, brand name and special variations (probiotic, lactose-free and organic) as product characteristics, up to 74 % of the observed price variation can be explained. Yoghurts being lactose-free realize price premiums up to 67 % at the retail level and also yoghurts being perceived as healthy (low-fat and probiotic) are more expensive than pure full-fat yoghurts. Implications for the milk processing industry are also being discussed.

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    Paper provided by German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA) in its series 51st Annual Conference, Halle, Germany, September 28-30, 2011 with number 115362.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:gewi11:115362
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