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Time Series Analysis Of A Principal-Agent Model To Assess Risk Shifting And Bargaining Power In Commodity Marketing Channels

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  • Kuiper, W. Erno
  • Kuwornu, John K.M.
  • Pennings, Joost M.E.

Abstract

We apply the classic agency model to investigate risk shifting in an agricultural marketing channel, using time series analysis. We show that if the principal is risk-neutral and the agent is risk-averse instead of risk-neutral, then a linear contract can still be optimal if the fixed payment is negative. Empirical results for the Dutch potato marketing channel indicate that while fixed payments to farmers (agents) have decreased over time, even to negative levels, the incentive intensity has approximately doubled, and the risk premium the farmers ask for has remained considerable. These results imply that risk has shifted from wholesalers, processors, and retailers to farmers; we argue that this shift could be the consequence of chain reversal, i.e., the transformation of the traditional supply chain into a demand-oriented chain.

Suggested Citation

  • Kuiper, W. Erno & Kuwornu, John K.M. & Pennings, Joost M.E., 2003. "Time Series Analysis Of A Principal-Agent Model To Assess Risk Shifting And Bargaining Power In Commodity Marketing Channels," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22046, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea03:22046
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1974. "Incentives and Risk Sharing in Sharecropping," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(2), pages 219-255.
    2. Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-472, August.
    3. Mathewson, G Frank & Winter, Ralph A, 1985. "The Economics of Franchise Contracts," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(3), pages 503-526, October.
    4. Daniel A. Ackerberg & Maristella Botticini, 2002. "Endogenous Matching and the Empirical Determinants of Contract Form," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(3), pages 564-591, June.
    5. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1987. "Aggregation and Linearity in the Provision of Intertemporal Incentives," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 303-328, March.
    6. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    7. Boehlje, Michael, 1996. "Industrialization of Agriculture: What are the Implications?," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 11(1).
    8. W. Erno Kuiper & Matthew T.G. Meulenberg, 2002. "Vertical price leadership: A cointegration analysis," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(3), pages 317-331.
    9. Joost M.E. Pennings & Philip Garcia, 2001. "Measuring Producers' Risk Preferences: A Global Risk-Attitude Construct," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(4), pages 993-1009.
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    Keywords

    Marketing; Risk and Uncertainty;

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