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OECD Reviews of School Resources


  • Anna Pons
  • Jeremie Amoroso
  • Jan Herczynski
  • Igor Kheyfets
  • Marlaine Lockheed
  • Paulo Santiago


The primary and secondary education system in Kazakhstan has accomplished significant achievements. Kazakhstan has embarked on profound reforms to improve the quality of the education system and is increasingly looking to international standards and best practices. Reform initiatives include the expansion of the pre-primary education network, the development of new mechanisms of school financing (including a new per capita funding scheme), the creation of resource centers to support small-class schools, further investment in school infrastructure, and a wider use of information technologies in schools. In this context of reforms, while there is an apparent desire to increase resources devoted to education and awareness that spending per student remains markedly lower than the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average and that of other neighboring countries, there remains an official reluctance to expand public expenditure on education. This report analyses the effectiveness of the Kazakh school system and identifies policy areas with potential efficiency gains or requiring further public investment. The following policy priorities were identified to improve the effectiveness of resource use in the Kazakh school system: increase overall public spending on education as the sector gains absorptive capacity, while addressing key inefficiencies; review the organization of the school network and lengthen the school day; support disadvantaged students and schools; improve teacher quality and school leadership; and use evaluation and information systems to foster improvement and accountability.

Suggested Citation

  • Anna Pons & Jeremie Amoroso & Jan Herczynski & Igor Kheyfets & Marlaine Lockheed & Paulo Santiago, 2015. "OECD Reviews of School Resources," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 22892, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:22892

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mizala, Alejandra & Urquiola, Miguel, 2013. "School markets: The impact of information approximating schools' effectiveness," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 313-335.
    2. Alejandra Mizala & Miguel Urquiola, 2007. "Parental choice and school markets: The impact of information approximating school effectiveness," Documentos de Trabajo 239, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
    3. Tahir Andrabi & Jishnu Das & Asim Khwaja, 2014. "Report Cards: The Impact of Providing School and Child Test Scores on Educational Markets," CID Working Papers 287, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    4. Barbara Bruns & Deon Filmer & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2011. "Making Schools Work : New Evidence on Accountability Reforms," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2270, December.
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