IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this book

Sustainable Low-Carbon City Development in China


  • Axel Baeumler
  • Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez
  • Shomik Mehndiratta


Cities contribute an estimated 70 percent of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases (GHG). Their locations, often in low-elevation coastal zones, and large populations make them particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. But cities often take steps, even ahead of national governments, to reduce GHG emissions. So it is with China's cities, which are well placed to chart a low-carbon growth path to help reach China's national targets for reducing the energy and carbon intensity of its economy. China's cities will need to act on multiple fronts, in some cases scaling up elements of existing good practice, in others changing established ways of doing business. Actions affecting land-use and spatial development are among the most critical to achieving low-carbon growth as carbon emissions are closely connected to urban form. Spatial development also has very strong 'lock-in' effects: once cities grow and define their urban form, it is almost impossible to retrofit them because the built environment is largely irreversible and very costly to modify. Furthermore, cities need energy-efficient buildings and industries. They need a transport system that offers alternatives to automobiles. They need to shift to efficient management of water, wastewater, and solid waste. And they need to incorporate responses to climate change in their planning, investment decisions, and emergency-preparedness plans.

Suggested Citation

  • Axel Baeumler & Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez & Shomik Mehndiratta, 2012. "Sustainable Low-Carbon City Development in China," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 12330, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:12330

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Can Wang & Jie Lin & Wenjia Cai & ZhongXiang Zhang, 2013. "Policies and Practices of Low Carbon City Development in China," Energy & Environment, , vol. 24(7-8), pages 1347-1372, December.
    2. Tian, Jing & Andraded, Celio & Lumbreras, Julio & Guan, Dabo & Wang, Fangzhi & Liao, Hua, 2018. "Integrating Sustainability Into City-level CO2 Accounting: Social Consumption Pattern and Income Distribution," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 1-16.
    3. S. Kumar, 2015. "Engendering Liveable Low-Carbon Smart Cities in ASEAN as an Inclusive Green Growth Model and Opportunities for Regional Cooperation," Working Papers DP-2015-57, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).
    4. Wu, Jing & Zuidema, Christian & Gugerell, Katharina & de Roo, Gert, 2017. "Mind the gap! Barriers and implementation deficiencies of energy policies at the local scale in urban China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 201-211.
    5. Zheng, Lijun & Song, Jiancheng & Li, Chuanyang & Gao, Yunguang & Geng, Pulong & Qu, Binni & Lin, Linyan, 2014. "Preferential policies promote municipal solid waste (MSW) to energy in China: Current status and prospects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 135-148.
    6. Zhang, Lipeng & Gudmundsson, Oddgeir & Thorsen, Jan Eric & Li, Hongwei & Li, Xiaopeng & Svendsen, Svend, 2016. "Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 431-442.
    7. He, Qi & Jiang, Xujia & Gouldson, Andy & Sudmant, Andrew & Guan, Dabo & Colenbrander, Sarah & Xue, Tao & Zheng, Bo & Zhang, Qiang, 2016. "Climate change mitigation in Chinese megacities: A measures-based analysis of opportunities in the residential sector," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 769-778.
    8. Haiyan Zhang & Michael L. Lahr, 2018. "Households’ Energy Consumption Change in China: A Multi-Regional Perspective," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(7), pages 1-17, July.
    9. Qingduo Mao & Ben Ma & Hongshuai Wang & Qi Bian, 2019. "Investigating Policy Instrument Adoption in Low-Carbon City Development: A Case Study from China," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(18), pages 1-17, September.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:12330. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Breineder) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Thomas Breineder to update the entry or send us the correct email address. General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.