IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/wly/jmoncb/v40y2008i6p1217-1238.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Geographic Diversification, Bank Holding Company Value, and Risk

Author

Listed:
  • SAIYING (ESTHER) DENG
  • ELYAS ELYASIANI

Abstract

We assess the association between geographic diversification and bank holding company (BHC) value and risk, controlling for the distance between the headquarters and branches. The distance‐adjusted deposit dispersion index used as a measure of geographic diversification accounts for the number of locations where a BHC operates, the level of activity in each location, and the distance between a BHC and its branches. We find that geographic diversification is associated with BHC value enhancement and risk reduction, increased distance between a BHC and its branches is associated with firm value reduction and risk increase, and geographic diversification across more remote areas is associated with greater value enhancement but smaller risk reduction.

Suggested Citation

  • Saiying (Esther) Deng & Elyas Elyasiani, 2008. "Geographic Diversification, Bank Holding Company Value, and Risk," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(6), pages 1217-1238, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jmoncb:v:40:y:2008:i:6:p:1217-1238
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-4616.2008.00154.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4616.2008.00154.x
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/j.1538-4616.2008.00154.x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hans Degryse & Steven Ongena, 2005. "Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 231-266, February.
    2. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. "The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
    3. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2007. "Is there a diversification discount in financial conglomerates?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 331-367, August.
    4. Saunders, Anthony, 1994. "Banking and commerce: An overview of the public policy issues," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 231-254, January.
    5. Lewellen, Wilbur G, 1971. "A Pure Financial Rationale for the Conglomerate Merger," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 521-537, May.
    6. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    7. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 2006. "Technological Progress and the Geographic Expansion of the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 1483-1513, September.
    8. David J. Denis & Diane K. Denis & Keven Yost, 2002. "Global Diversification, Industrial Diversification, and Firm Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1951-1979, October.
    9. Deng, Saiying (Esther) & Elyasiani, Elyas & Mao, Connie X., 2007. "Diversification and the cost of debt of bank holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 2453-2473, August.
    10. Astrid A. Dick, 2006. "Nationwide Branching and Its Impact on Market Structure, Quality, and Bank Performance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(2), pages 567-592, March.
    11. Allen Berger & Robert DeYoung, 2001. "The Effects of Geographic Expansion on Bank Efficiency," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 163-184, April.
    12. Rivard, Richard J. & Thomas, Christopher R., 1997. "The effect of interstate banking on large bank holding company profitability and risk," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 61-76, February.
    13. Viral V. Acharya & Iftekhar Hasan & Anthony Saunders, 2006. "Should Banks Be Diversified? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1355-1412, May.
    14. Hughes, Joseph P. & Lang, William W. & Mester, Loretta J. & Moon, Choon-Geol, 1999. "The dollars and sense of bank consolidation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 291-324, February.
    15. Doukas, John A. & Pantzalis, Christos, 2003. "Geographic diversification and agency costs of debt of multinational firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 59-92, January.
    16. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Schmeits, Anjolein, 2000. "Market Discipline and Incentive Problems in Conglomerate Firms with Applications to Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 240-273, July.
    17. Fraser, Donald R. & Hooton, Jerry L. & Kolari, James W. & Reising, Joseph J., 1997. "The wealth effects of interstate branching," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 589-611, May.
    18. Banz, Rolf W., 1981. "The relationship between return and market value of common stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-18, March.
    19. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
    20. Sullivan, Richard J. & Spong, Kenneth R., 2007. "Manager wealth concentration, ownership structure, and risk in commercial banks," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 229-248, April.
    21. Joseph Chen & Harrison Hong & Ming Huang & Jeffrey D. Kubik, 2004. "Does Fund Size Erode Mutual Fund Performance? The Role of Liquidity and Organization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(5), pages 1276-1302, December.
    22. Baele, Lieven & De Jonghe, Olivier & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2007. "Does the stock market value bank diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1999-2023, July.
    23. Joshua D. Coval & Tobias J. Moskowitz, 2001. "The Geography of Investment: Informed Trading and Asset Prices," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(4), pages 811-841, August.
    24. Chong, Beng Soon, 1991. "The Effects of Interstate Banking on Commercial Banks' Risk and Profitability," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(1), pages 78-84, February.
    25. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
    26. Servaes, Henri, 1996. "The Value of Diversification during the Conglomerate Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1201-1225, September.
    27. Akhigbe, Aigbe & Whyte, Ann Marie, 2003. "Changes in market assessments of bank risk following the Riegle-Neal Act of 1994," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 87-102, January.
    28. Krishnaswami, Sudha & Spindt, Paul A. & Subramaniam, Venkat, 1999. "Information asymmetry, monitoring, and the placement structure of corporate debt," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 407-434, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Benjamin Amoah & Godfred A. Bokpin & Kwaku Ohene‐Asare & A. Q. Q. Aboagye, 2021. "Drivers of income diversification in credit unions: Do size, resource, liquidity, and environment matter?," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 42(6), pages 1407-1420, September.
    2. Pamela Cardozo & Paola Morales-Acevedo & Andrés Murcia & Beatriz Pacheco, 2020. "Does Geographical Complexity of Colombian Financial Conglomerates Increase Banks' Risk? The Role of Diversification, Regulatory Arbitrage and Funding Costs," Borradores de Economia 1110, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    3. Theodora Bermpei & Antonios Nikolaos Kalyvas & Leone Leonida, 2021. "Local Public Corruption and Bank Lending Activity in the United States," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 171(1), pages 73-98, June.
    4. Payam Hanafizadeh & Seyedali Marjaie, 2020. "Trends and turning points of banking: a timespan view," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 14(6), pages 1183-1219, December.
    5. Duijm, Patty & Schoenmaker, Dirk, 2021. "European banks straddling borders: Risky or rewarding?," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(C).
    6. Kalluru Siva Reddy, 2021. "Are Banks in India Diversified Enough, Geographically, Across States and Economic Sectors?," Review of Development and Change, , vol. 26(1), pages 83-103, June.
    7. Xiaonan Li & Chang Song, 2021. "Does the target market affect bank performance? Evidence from the geographic diversification of city commercial banks in China," Frontiers of Business Research in China, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 1-25, December.
    8. Nyola, Annick Pamen & Sauviat, Alain & Tarazi, Amine & Danisman, Gamze Ozturk, 2021. "How organizational and geographic complexity influence performance: Evidence from European banks," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 55(C).
    9. Stephen G. Fier & Andre P. Liebenberg & Ivonne A. Liebenberg, 2017. "Insurer Growth Strategies," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 20(3), pages 309-337, December.
    10. Allen N. Berger & Felix Irresberger & Raluca A. Roman, 2020. "Bank Size and Household Financial Sentiment: Surprising Evidence from University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(S1), pages 149-191, October.
    11. Lakdawala, Aeimit & Minetti, Raoul & Schaffer, Matthew, 2021. "Bank regulation and monetary policy transmission: Evidence from the U.S. States liberalization," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    12. Chen, Wang & Ho, Kung-Cheng & Yang, Lu, 2020. "Network structures and idiosyncratic contagion in the European sovereign credit default swap market," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    13. Raykov, Radoslav & Silva-Buston, Consuelo, 2020. "Holding company affiliation and bank stability: Evidence from the US banking sector," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    14. Curi, Claudia & Lozano-Vivas, Ana, 2020. "Managerial ability as a tool for prudential regulation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 174(C), pages 87-107.
    15. Chen, Ting-Hsuan & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2020. "Spatial analysis of liquidity risk in China," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    16. Bakkar, Yassine & Nyola, Annick Pamen, 2021. "Internationalization, foreign complexity and systemic risk: Evidence from European banks," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 55(C).
    17. Pamen Annick & Alain Sauviat & Amine Tarazi, 2020. "How Organizational and Geographic Complexity Influence Performance? Evidence from European Banks," Working Papers hal-02966628, HAL.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Yi-cheng Liu & Yue-cune Chang, 2013. "The Regional Performances of Agricultural Bank of China Applying GEE Method Multiple Linear Regression," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 3(5), pages 1-3.
    2. Deng, Saiying (Esther) & Elyasiani, Elyas & Mao, Connie X., 2007. "Diversification and the cost of debt of bank holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 2453-2473, August.
    3. Zamore, Stephen & Beisland, Leif Atle & Mersland, Roy, 2019. "Geographic diversification and credit risk in microfinance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).
    4. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Küllü, A. Melih & Zhou, Mingming, 2018. "Should banks diversify or focus? Know thyself: The role of abilities," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 106-118.
    5. Mohamed Azzim Gulamhussen & Carlos Pinheiro & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, 2010. "Do multinational banks create or destroy economic value?," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 36, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    6. Goetz, Martin R. & Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2016. "Does the geographic expansion of banks reduce risk?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 346-362.
    7. Jouida, Sameh & Bouzgarrou, Houssam & Hellara, Slaheddine, 2017. "The effects of activity and geographic diversification on performance: Evidence from French financial institutions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 920-939.
    8. Martin Goetz & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2014. "Does the Geographic Expansion of Bank Assets Reduce Risk?," NBER Working Papers 20758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Apergis, Nicholas, 2014. "The long-term role of non-traditional banking in profitability and risk profiles: Evidence from a panel of U.S. banking institutions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 61-73.
    10. Martin Goetz & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2011. "The Valuation Effects of Geographic Diversification: Evidence from U.S. Banks," NBER Working Papers 17660, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Schaeck, K. & Silva Buston, C.F. & Wagner, W.B., 2013. "The Two Faces of Interbank Correlation," Discussion Paper 2013-077, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    12. van Lelyveld, Iman & Knot, Klaas, 2009. "Do financial conglomerates create or destroy value? Evidence for the EU," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 2312-2321, December.
    13. Allen N. Berger & Astrid A. Dick & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2007. "Competition from Large, Multimarket Firms and the Performance of Small, Single‐Market Firms: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(2‐3), pages 331-368, March.
    14. Westman, Hanna, 2011. "The impact of management and board ownership on profitability in banks with different strategies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 3300-3318.
    15. Meslier, Céline & Morgan, Donald P. & Samolyk, Katherine & Tarazi, Amine, 2016. "The benefits and costs of geographic diversification in banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 287-317.
    16. Schüwer, Ulrich & Gropp, Reint E. & Noth, Felix, 2016. "What drives banks' geographic expansion? The role of locally non-diversifiable risk," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145885, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    17. Nguyen, Thi Lam Anh, 2018. "Diversification and bank efficiency in six ASEAN countries," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 57-78.
    18. Altunbas, Yener & Marqués, David, 2008. "Mergers and acquisitions and bank performance in Europe: The role of strategic similarities," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 204-222.
    19. Gulamhussen, M.A. & Pinheiro, Carlos & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2014. "International diversification and risk of multinational banks: Evidence from the pre-crisis period," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 13(C), pages 30-43.
    20. Roberto Felici & Marcello Pagnini, 2008. "Distance, Bank Heterogeneity And Entry In Local Banking Markets," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(3), pages 500-534, September.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:jmoncb:v:40:y:2008:i:6:p:1217-1238. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-2879 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-2879 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.