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To educate a woman and to educate a man: Gender‐specific sexual behavior and human immunodeficiency virus responses to an education reform in Botswana

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  • Annika Lindskog
  • Dick Durevall

Abstract

This study analyses mechanisms that link education to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with a focus on gender differences, using data from four nationally representative surveys in Botswana. To estimate the causal effect, an exogenous 1‐year increase of junior secondary school is used. The key finding is that women and men responded differently to the reform. Among women, it led to delayed sexual debut and reduced time between first sex and marriage by up to a year. Among men, risky sex, measured by the likelihood of concurrent sexual partnerships and paying for sex, increased. The increase in risky sex among men is likely to be due to the education reform's positive impact on income. The reform reduced the likelihood of HIV infection sharply among women, especially among relatively young women age 18–24. The impact on men's likelihood of HIV infection is uncertain.

Suggested Citation

  • Annika Lindskog & Dick Durevall, 2021. "To educate a woman and to educate a man: Gender‐specific sexual behavior and human immunodeficiency virus responses to an education reform in Botswana," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(3), pages 642-658, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:30:y:2021:i:3:p:642-658
    DOI: 10.1002/hec.4212
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Eliana La Ferrara & Annamaria Milazzo, 2017. "Customary Norms, Inheritance, and Human Capital: Evidence from a Reform of the Matrilineal System in Ghana," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 166-185, October.
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    3. Jeremy Magruder, 2011. "Marital Shopping and Epidemic AIDS," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 48(4), pages 1401-1428, November.
    4. Chicoine, Luke, 2012. "Education and Fertility: Evidence from a Policy Change in Kenya," IZA Discussion Papers 6778, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Jonathan Robinson & Ethan Yeh, 2011. "Transactional Sex as a Response to Risk in Western Kenya," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 35-64, January.
    6. Dick Durevall & Annika Lindskog & Gavin George, 2019. "Education and HIV incidence among young women in KwaZulu-Natal: An association but no evidence of a causal protective effect," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(3), pages 1-16, March.
    7. Marshall Burke & Erick Gong & Kelly Jones, 2015. "Income Shocks and HIV in Africa," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 125(585), pages 1157-1189, June.
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    1. Chris Sampson’s journal round-up for 8th March 2021
      by Chris Sampson in The Academic Health Economists' Blog on 2021-03-08 12:00:01

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