IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/tpr/restat/v84y2002i2p353-370.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Investment, Credit Rationing, And The Soft Budget Constraint: Evidence From Czech Panel Data

Author

Listed:
  • Lubomír Lízal
  • Jan Svejnar

Abstract

Strategic restructuring of firms through investment is key to a transition from plan to market. Using data on industrial firms in the Czech Republic during 1992-1998, we find that foreign-owned companies invest the most and cooperatives the least, that private firms do not invest more than state-owned ones, and that cooperatives and small firms are credit rationed. Given the large volume of nonperforming bank loans to firms and the high rate of investment of large state-owned and private firms, our findings also suggest that these firms operate under a soft budget constraint. Estimates of a dynamic model, together with the support for the neoclassical model, suggest that firms started to behave consistently with profit maximization. © 2002 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Suggested Citation

  • Lubomír Lízal & Jan Svejnar, 2002. "Investment, Credit Rationing, And The Soft Budget Constraint: Evidence From Czech Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 353-370, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:restat:v:84:y:2002:i:2:p:353-370
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/003465302317411596
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mark Gertler, 1988. "Financial structure and aggregate economic activity: an overview," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 559-596.
    2. Estrin Saul & Svejnar Jan, 1993. "Wage Determination in Labor-Managed Firms under Market-Oriented Reforms: Estimates of Static and Dynamic Models," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 687-700, September.
    3. Lubomir Lizal & Jan Svejnar, 1997. "Enterprise Investment During the Transition: Evidence from Czech Panel Data," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 60, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Schaffer, Mark E., 1998. "Do Firms in Transition Economies Have Soft Budget Constraints? A Reconsideration of Concepts and Evidence," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 80-103, March.
    5. Kornai, J, 1979. "Resource-Constrained versus Demand-Constrained Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 801-819, July.
    6. Matthew D. Shapiro, 1986. "The Dynamic Demand for Capital and Labor," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 101(3), pages 513-542.
    7. Stephen Bond & Costas Meghir, 1994. "Dynamic Investment Models and the Firm's Financial Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(2), pages 197-222.
    8. János Kornai, 2014. "The soft budget constraint," Acta Oeconomica, Akadémiai Kiadó, Hungary, vol. 64(supplemen), pages 25-79, November.
    9. Janez Prasnikar, 1998. "Investment and Wages during the Transition: Evidence from Slovene Firms," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 184, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    10. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    11. Abel, Andrew B & Blanchard, Olivier J, 1986. "The Present Value of Profits and Cyclical Movements in Investment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(2), pages 249-273, March.
    12. Weitzman, Martin L., 1979. "Technology transfer to the USSR: An econometric analysis," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 167-177, June.
    13. Jorgenson, Dale W, 1971. "Econometric Studies of Investment Behavior: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 1111-1147, December.
    14. Steven N. Kaplan & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Are Not Valid Measures of Financing Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(2), pages 707-712.
    15. Stephen Nickell, 1977. "Uncertainty and Lags in the Investment Decisions of Firms," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(2), pages 249-263.
    16. Oliner, Stephen D & Rudebusch, Glenn D, 1992. "Sources of the Financing Hierarchy for Business Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 643-654, November.
    17. Terrell, Katherine, 1993. "Technical Change and Factor Bias in Polish Industry (1962-1983)," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 741-747, November.
    18. Abel, Andrew B., 1980. "Empirical investment equations : An integrative framework," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 39-91, January.
    19. Kornai, Janos, 1998. "The Concept of the Soft Budget Constraint Syndrome in Economic Theory," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 11-17, March.
    20. Desai, Padma, 1976. "The Production Function and Technical Change in Postwar Soviet Industry: A Reexamination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 372-381, June.
    21. Chirinko, Robert S. & Fazzari, Steven M. & Meyer, Andrew P., 1999. "How responsive is business capital formation to its user cost?: An exploration with micro data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 53-80, October.
    22. Aghion, Philippe & Blanchard, Olivier & Burgess, Robin, 1994. "The behaviour of state firms in eastern Europe, pre-privatisation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 1327-1349, June.
    23. Lubomír Lízal, 1999. "Depreciation rates in a transition economy: evidence from czech panel data," Prague Economic Papers, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 1999(3).
    24. Lubomir Lizal & Miroslav Singer & Jan Svejnar, 2001. "Enterprise Breakups And Performance During The Transition From Plan To Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(1), pages 92-99, February.
    25. Shumei Gao and Mark E. Schaffer & Shumei Gao and Mark E. Schaffer, 1998. "Financial Discipline in the Enterprise Sector in Transition Countries: How Does China Compare?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 124, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    26. Dieter Schumacher, 1995. "Zur technologischen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der westdeutschen Wirtschaft: eine ökonomische Beurteilung im längerfristigen und internationalen Vergleich," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 64(2), pages 232-248.
    27. Terrell, Katherine, 1992. "Productivity of western and domestic capital in polish industry," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 494-514, September.
    28. Thornton, Judith, 1970. "Value-Added and Factor Productivity in Soviet Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(5), pages 863-871, December.
    29. Steven N. Kaplan & Luigi Zingales, 1997. "Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(1), pages 169-215.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lubomir Lizal & Jan Svejnar, 2000. "Financial Conditions and Investment during the Transition: Evidence from Czech Firms," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp153, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    2. Lizal, L., 1999. "Does a Soft Macroeconomic Environment Induce Restructuring on the Microeconomic Level during the Transition Period? Evidence from Investment Behavior of Czech Enterprises," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp147, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    3. Janez Prasnikar & Jan Svejnar, 1998. "Investment Wages and Ownership During the Transition to a Market Economy: Evidence from Slovenian Firms," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 144, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Marian Rizov, 2004. "Firm investment in transition," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 12(4), pages 721-746, December.
    5. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Laeven, Luc & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2006. "The determinants of financing obstacles," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 932-952, October.
    6. Jacques Mairesse & Bronwyn H. Hall & Benoît Mulkay, 1999. "Firm-Level Investment in France and the United States: An Exploration of What We Have Learned in Twenty Years," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 55-56, pages 27-67.
    7. Emilio Colombo & Luca Stanca, 2006. "Investment decisions and the soft budget constraint," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(1), pages 171-198, March.
    8. Raushan Bokusheva & Irina Bezlepkina & Alfons Oude Lansink, 2009. "Exploring Farm Investment Behaviour in Transition: The Case of Russian Agriculture," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(2), pages 436-464, June.
    9. Walch, Florian & Dwenger, Nadja, 2011. "Tax Losses and Firm Investment: Evidence from Tax Statistics," VfS Annual Conference 2011 (Frankfurt, Main): The Order of the World Economy - Lessons from the Crisis 48699, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. Valentina Peruzzi, 2017. "Does family ownership structure affect investment-cash flow sensitivity? Evidence from Italian SMEs," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(43), pages 4378-4393, September.
    11. Behr Andreas & Bellgardt Egon, 2000. "Investitionsverhalten und Liquiditätsrestringiertheit. Eine Sensitivitätsanalyse / Investment Behaviour and Liquidity Constraints. A Sensitivity Analysis," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 220(3), pages 257-283, June.
    12. Degryse, Hans & de Jong, Abe, 2006. "Investment and internal finance: Asymmetric information or managerial discretion?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 125-147, January.
    13. Coad, Alex, 2010. "Neoclassical vs evolutionary theories of financial constraints: Critique and prospectus," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 206-218, August.
    14. Chen, Alex A. & Cao, Hong & Zhang, Dayong & Dickinson, David G., 2013. "The impact of shareholding structure on firm investment: Evidence from Chinese listed companies," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 85-100.
    15. Emilio Colombo & Luca Stanca, 2003. "Investment Decisions and the Soft Budget Constraint: Evidence from Hungarian Manufacturing Firms," Working Papers 68, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Dec 2003.
    16. Michele Cincera & Julien Ravet & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2014. "R&D Financing Constraints of Young and Old Innovation Leaders in the EU and the US," iCite Working Papers 2014-008, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    17. Hönig, Anja, 2012. "Financing Constraints Revisited - Is there a Role for Taxation and Internal Funds?," VfS Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 66053, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    18. Behr Andreas, 2005. "Investment, Q and Liquidity / Investitionen, Q und Liquidität: Evidence for Germany Using Firm Level Balance Sheet Data / Empirische Ergebnisse auf Basis von Unternehmensdaten," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 225(1), pages 2-21, February.
    19. Bersant Hobdari, 2008. "Insider Ownership and Capital Constraints: An Empirical Investigation of the Credit Rationing Hypothesis in Estonia," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(6), pages 536-549, November.
    20. von Kalckreuth, Ulf & Chirinko, Robert S., 2002. "Further Evidence On The Relationship Between Firm Investment And Financial Status," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,28, Deutsche Bundesbank.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E22 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • P21 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D92 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tpr:restat:v:84:y:2002:i:2:p:353-370. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.mitpressjournals.org/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Ann Olson (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mitpressjournals.org/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.