IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Distances and Small Business Credit Constraints: The French case


  • Salima Djedidi Kooli

    () (LEDA – SDFi, Université Paris-Dauphine, Place du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France)


Deregulation and progress in information and communication technologies have increased the geographical expansion of banking structures and instruments. This makes banks operationally close to the borrowers. At the same time, banking industry consolidation have induced a geographical concentration of banking decision centers and strategic functions, leading to an increase of the functional distance that separates the decision center of a bank from its operational branches. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of these two trends on small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) lending. Our findings on French data suggest that (i) increased functional distance induces an increase of the investment cash flow sensitivity considered as a measure of financing constraints and that (ii) the relationship between operational proximity and financing constraints is non linear with an investment-cash flow relationship supposed to be increasing for low levels of operational proximity below a certain threshold and decreasing for high levels of it. The adverse effect of functional distance on financing constraints is particularly acute for small firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Salima Djedidi Kooli, 2012. "Distances and Small Business Credit Constraints: The French case," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 5(3), pages 81-114, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:tei:journl:v:5:y:2012:i:3:p:81-114

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Chittenden, Francis & Hall, Graham & Hutchinson, Patrick, 1996. "Small Firm Growth, Access to Capital Markets and Financial Structure: Review of Issues and an Empirical Investigation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 59-67, February.
    2. Jacques Mairesse & Benoît Mulkay & Bronwyn H. Hall, 2001. "Investissement des entreprises et contraintes financières en France et aux États-Unis," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 341(1), pages 67-84.
    3. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    4. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    5. Collender, Robert N. & Shaffer, Sherrill, 2003. "Local bank office ownership, deposit control, market structure, and economic growth," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 27-57, January.
    6. Scott Holmes & Pam Kent, 1991. "An Empirical Analysis of the Financial Structure of Small and Large Australian Manufacturing Enterprises," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 1(2), pages 141-154, Winter.
    7. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    8. Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Information Production and Capital Allocation: Decentralized versus Hierarchical Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1891-1921, October.
    9. Pietro Alessandrini & Andrea F. Presbitero & Alberto Zazzaro, 2009. "Banks, Distances and Firms' Financing Constraints," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 13(2), pages 261-307.
    10. Pietro Alessandrini & Manuela Croci & Alberto Zazzaro, 2005. "The geography of banking power: role of function distance," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 58(235), pages 129-167.
    11. Carling, Kenneth & Lundberg, Sofia, 2005. "Asymmetric information and distance: an empirical assessment of geographical credit rationing," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 39-59.
    12. Alessandrini, Pietro & Calcagnini, Giorgio & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2008. "Asset restructuring strategies in bank acquisitions: Does distance between dealing partners matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 699-713, May.
    13. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
    14. Sevestre, P. & Trognon, A., 1985. "A note on autoregressive error components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 231-245, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Simeon Karafolas, 2013. "Public financial support to investments in rural areas: The case of the region of Thessaly in Greece," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 6(2), pages 81-101, September.
    2. repec:bla:ecnote:v:46:y:2017:i:3:p:527-554 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    SME lending; functional distance; operational proximity; financing constraints; investment-cash flow sensitivity;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • R51 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tei:journl:v:5:y:2012:i:3:p:81-114. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kostas Stergidis). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.