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Foreign aid and export diversification in developing countries

  • Jonathan Munemo

This paper analyzes the effect of foreign aid on export diversification for a sample of developing countries while controlling for the effects of other factors that determine export diversification. We find that foreign aid not exceeding 20% of a country's GDP significantly promotes export diversification, while foreign aid in excess of 20% of GDP significantly impedes export diversification. The latter result corroborates evidence from related literature, which has shown that foreign aid can have an anti-export bias due to a Dutch disease effect. However, our results show that aid as a percent of GDP is below 20% in most low-income countries. This implies that in many low-income countries, varying amounts of additional aid can be used to enhance export diversification without causing a Dutch disease effect. As in the previous literature, we find that the level of development, infrastructure, transactions costs, and natural resources significantly affect export diversification. Our results are robust to the use of two different export diversification measures and different sub-samples.

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File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09638199.2011.538970
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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Volume (Year): 20 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 339-355

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Handle: RePEc:taf:jitecd:v:20:y:2011:i:3:p:339-355
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  1. Subhayu Bandyopadhyay & Howard J. Wall, 2006. "The determinants of aid in the post-cold war era," Working Papers 2006-021, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  2. Younger, Stephen D., 1992. "Aid and the Dutch disease: Macroeconomic management when everybody loves you," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(11), pages 1587-1597, November.
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  6. Habiyaremye, Alexis & Ziesemer, Thomas, 2006. "Absorptive Capacity and Export Diversification in Sub-Saharan African Countries," MERIT Working Papers 030, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
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  12. Boone, Peter, 1996. "Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 289-329, February.
  13. White, Howard & Wignaraja, Ganeshan, 1992. "Exchange rates, trade liberalization and aid: The Sri Lankan experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1471-1480, October.
  14. Alberto Alesina & David Dollar, 1998. "Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?," NBER Working Papers 6612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Arvind Subramanian & Raghuram Rajan, 2005. "What Undermines Aid's Impacton Growth?," IMF Working Papers 05/126, International Monetary Fund.
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  18. Osakwe, Patrick N., 2007. "Foreign Aid, Resources and Export Diversification in Africa: A New Test of Existing Theories," MPRA Paper 2228, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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