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Trade efficiency and economic development: evidence from a cross country comparison


  • George Halkos
  • Nickolaos Tzeremes


Economic theory suggests that development is enhanced through income growth, which is driven through increased trade. However, the empirical evidence of such a relationship most of the times is proved to be weak. In this study we try to determine the factors influencing this relationship by measuring 'trade efficiency'. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) window method for a sample of 16 OECD countries, we obtained the efficiency scores and the optimal output levels for the inefficient countries for a time period of 5 years under consideration. Results drawn from the broadly used ratio analysis were also compared to the results derived from the DEA model. Our empirical findings show that 'trade efficient' countries have clear characteristics like low-exchange rates for exports, low R&D intensity, high-value intra industry trade and positive impact of net trade on their gross domestic product.

Suggested Citation

  • George Halkos & Nickolaos Tzeremes, 2008. "Trade efficiency and economic development: evidence from a cross country comparison," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(21), pages 2749-2764.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:40:y:2008:i:21:p:2749-2764
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840600970302

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    Cited by:

    1. Halkos, George E. & Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2009. "Economic efficiency and growth in the EU enlargement," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 847-862, November.
    2. Halkos, George Emm. & Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2009. "Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(7), pages 2168-2176, May.
    3. Arazmuradov, Annageldy, 2011. "Energy consumption and carbon dioxide environmental efficiency for former Soviet Union economies. evidence from DEA window analysis," MPRA Paper 36903, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 24 Feb 2012.
    4. Nada Karaman Aksentijevic & Zoran Jezic, 2009. "Human Resources development and research capacity and their impact on economic growth," Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci/Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, University of Rijeka, Faculty of Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 263-291.
    5. Nalan Baştürk & Richard Paap & Dick van Dijk, 2012. "Structural differences in economic growth: an endogenous clustering approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(1), pages 119-134, January.
    6. Kishor Sharma & Pemasiri J. Gunawardana, 2012. "The role of price and nonprice factors in predicting Australia's trade performance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(21), pages 2679-2686, July.
    7. B. Fingleton & P. Cheshire & H. Garretsen & D. Igliori & J. Le Gallo & P. McCann & J. McCombie & V. Monastiriotis & B. Moore & M. Roberts, 2011. "Editorial," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(4), pages 351-357, December.
    8. Halkos, George & Skouloudis, Antonis, 2016. "Cultural dimensions and corporate social responsibility: A cross-country analysis," MPRA Paper 69222, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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