Trade liberalization and labor market in Brazil: impacts on employment and wages in tradeables and nontradeables sectors
The aim of this paper is to analyze the impacts of openness on employment and wages, taking into consideration two crucial aspects. The first, related to labor demand, refers to an increase in the relative employment of less-skilled workers. With Brazil being a developing country with abundant less-skilled labor, it can be expected – based on H-O-S – that income redistribution in favor of unskilled labor may occur after the trade liberalization. The second aspect is the impact on tradeables and non-tradeables. The H-O-S model implicitly admits tradeables goods only. However, the effect on the labor market is also felt on the non-tradeables sector. This aspect has been neglected in the analyses concerning this subject in the Brazilian economy. The conclusion raises the point that it is difficult to define any prevalence of labor demand shifts in the tradeables or nontradeables sectors. However, when the analysis is carried out after breaking down data based on levels of education, it is possible to conclude that the demand for unskilled workers increased after trade liberalization in Brazil. Nevertheless, demand shifts among sectors suggest that H-O-S framework does not explain the impacts of trade liberalization in Brazil, since the demand for skilled workers increased among the same sectors. This data, however, needs to be looked at with caution since the stabilization in Brazil (1994) changed income distribution by means and through the effects of an inflation tax and forced saving.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2002|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Cedeplar-FACE-UFMG Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 Brazil|
Fax: +55 31 3201-3657
Web page: http://www.cedeplar.ufmg.br
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Postal: Cedeplar-FACE-UFMG Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 Brazil|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1988.
"Comparative Advantage And Long-Run Growth,"
39-88, Tel Aviv.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1991.
"Trade Orientation, Distortions and Growth in Developing Countries,"
NBER Working Papers
3716, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edwards, Sebastian, 1992. "Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 31-57, July.
- Ana Flávia Machado & Maurício Mesquita Moreira, 2001. "Os impactos da abertura comercial sobre a remuneração relativa do trabalho no Brasil," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td158, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
- Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995.
"Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
- Dani Rodrik, 1992. "The Rush to Free Trade in the Developing World: Why So Late? Why Now? Will it Last?," NBER Working Papers 3947, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Grossman, Gene M., 1986.
"Imports as a cause of injury: The case of the U.S. steel industry,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 20(3-4), pages 201-223, May.
- Gene M. Grossman, 1984. "Imports as a Cause of Injury: The Case of the U.S. Steel Industry," NBER Working Papers 1494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anne O. Krueger, 1997.
"Trade Policy and Economic Development: How We Learn,"
NBER Working Papers
5896, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Krueger, Anne O, 1997. "Trade Policy and Economic Development: How We Learn," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 1-22, March.
- Harrison, Ann & Hanson, Gordon, 1999.
"Who gains from trade reform? Some remaining puzzles,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 125-154, June.
- Ann Harrison & Gordon Hanson, 1999. "Who Gains from Trade Reform? Some Remaining Puzzles," NBER Working Papers 6915, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gordon H. Hanson & Ann Harrison, 1995.
"Trade, Technology, and Wage Inequality,"
NBER Working Papers
5110, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1995.
"Trade Policy, Exchange Rates, and Growth,"
in: Reform, Recovery, and Growth: Latin America and the Middle East, pages 13-52
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ann Harrison, 1995.
"Openness and Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis for Developing Countries,"
NBER Working Papers
5221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Harrison, Ann, 1996. "Openness and growth: A time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 419-447, March.
- Harrison, Ann, 1991. "Openness and growth : a time series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 809, The World Bank.
- Dan Ben-David & Ayal Kimhi, 2001.
"Trade and the rate of income convergence,"
The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 419-441.
- T. N. Srinivasan & Jagdish Bhagwati, 1999.
"Outward-Orientation and Development: Are Revisionists Right,"
806, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Srinivasan, T.N. & Bhagwati, J., 1999. "Outward-Orientation and Development: Are Revisionist Right?," Papers 806, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Findlay, Ronald, 1984. "Growth and development in trade models," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 185-236 Elsevier.
- Rodrik, Rani, 1995. "Trade and industrial policy reform," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 45, pages 2925-2982 Elsevier.
- Dani Rodrik & Andres Velasco, 1999. "Short-Term Capital Flows," NBER Working Papers 7364, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Eli Berman & John Bound & Zvi Griliches, 1993. "Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing Industries: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufacturing," NBER Working Papers 4255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wood, Adrian, 1991. "How Much Does Trade with the South Affect Workers in the North?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 6(1), pages 19-36, January.
- Revenga, Ana, 1997. "Employment and Wage Effects of Trade Liberalization: The Case of Mexican Manufacturing," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages 20-43, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdp:texdis:td174. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gustavo Britto)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.