Nationality preferences for labour in the international football industry
This paper tests consumer and co-worker nationalistic preferences by measuring the effect of team nationality composition on fan attendance and overall team quality using professional football teams in the world's five largest football leagues. Little evidence is found to support the hypothesis that fans or co-workers discriminate based upon the player's nationality. Thus, the under-representation of various nationalities can be concluded to originate from a club's ownership and/or management. These results are similar to the racial bias revealed by English club owners as found by Szymanski and Preston.
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Volume (Year): 35 (2003)
Issue (Month): 14 ()
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References listed on IDEAS
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- Stefan Szymanski, 2000. "A Market Test for Discrimination in the English Professional Soccer Leagues," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 590-603, June.
- Stephen Dobson & Bill Gerrard & Simon Howe, 2000. "The determination of transfer fees in English nonleague football," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(9), pages 1145-1152.
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- Chambers, Daniel N., 1992. "The racial housing price differential and racially transitional neighborhoods," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 214-232, September.
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- Gwartney, James & Haworth, Charles, 1974. "Employer Costs and Discrimination: The Case of Baseball," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(4), pages 873-81, July/Aug..
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- Lawrence M. Kahn, 1991. "Discrimination in Professional Sports: A Survey of the Literature," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(3), pages 395-418, April.
- Carmichael, Fiona & Forrest, David & Simmons, Robert, 1999. "The Labour Market in Association Football: Who Gets Transferred and For How Much?," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 125-50, April.
- Kahn, Lawrence M & Sherer, Peter D, 1988. "Racial Differences in Professional Basketball Players' Compensation," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(1), pages 40-61, January.
- Tim Sass & Jennifer Troyer, 1999. "Affirmative action, political representation, unions, and female police employment," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 571-587, December.
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