Calorie consumption and income: panel cointegration and causality evidence in developing countries
Two theories characterize the relationship between calorie consumption and income. The Engel curve hypothesizes that calories are determined by income whereas the efficiency wage hypothesis posits the converse. This article examines the validity of these hypotheses for 41 developing countries using panel cointegration methods. Results show bidirectional causality and both hypotheses are supported. The long-run income elasticity of calorie demand is 0.25, and the calorie elasticity of income generation is 1.78. Thus, increases in income can alleviate malnutrition to a limited extent, and increases in calorie consumption lead to greater work effort and income.
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Volume (Year): 18 (2011)
Issue (Month): 15 ()
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