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Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams

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  • Meine Noordwijk
  • Fahmuddin Agus
  • Sonya Dewi
  • Herry Purnomo

Abstract

Land-based emissions of carbon dioxide derive from the interface of forest and agriculture. Emission estimates require harmonization across forest and non-forest data sources. Furthermore, emission reduction requires understanding of the linked causes and policy levers between agriculture and forestry. The institutional forestry traditions dominated the emergence of the discourse on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) while more holistic perspectives on land-based emissions, including agriculture, found a home in international recognition for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). We tested the hypothesis that, at least for Indonesia, the NAMA framework provides opportunities to resolve issues that REDD+ alone cannot address. We reviewed progress on five major challenges identified in 2007 by the Indonesian Forest Climate Alliance: 1) scope and ‘forest’ definition; 2) ownership and tenurial rights; 3) multiplicity and interconnectedness of drivers; 4) peatland issues across forest and non-forest land categories; and 5) fairness and efficiency of benefit-distribution mechanisms across conservation, degradation and restoration phases of tree-cover transition. Results indicate that the two policy instruments developed in parallel with competition rather than synergy. Three of the REDD+ challenges can be resolved by treating REDD+ as a subset of the NAMA and national emission reduction plans for Indonesia. We conclude that two issues, rights and benefit distribution, remain a major challenge, and require progress on a motivational pyramid of policy and polycentric governance. National interest in retaining global palm oil exports gained priority over expectations of REDD forest rents. Genuine concerns over climate change motivate a small but influential part of the ongoing debate. Copyright The Author(s) 2014

Suggested Citation

  • Meine Noordwijk & Fahmuddin Agus & Sonya Dewi & Herry Purnomo, 2014. "Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 19(6), pages 677-692, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:masfgc:v:19:y:2014:i:6:p:677-692
    DOI: 10.1007/s11027-013-9502-y
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Herry Purnomo & Desi Suyamto & Rika Irawati, 2013. "Harnessing the climate commons: an agent-based modelling approach to making reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD)+work," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 471-489, April.
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    5. Arild Angelsen & Thomas K. Rudel, 2013. "Designing and Implementing Effective REDD + Policies: A Forest Transition Approach," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 7(1), pages 91-113, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Moeliono, Moira & Brockhaus, Maria & Gallemore, Caleb & Dwisatrio, Bimo & Maharani, Cynthia D. & Muharrom, Efrian & Pham, Thuy Thu, 2020. "REDD+ in Indonesia: A new mode of governance or just another project?," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    2. Purnomo, Herry & Shantiko, Bayuni & Sitorus, Soaduon & Gunawan, Harris & Achdiawan, Ramadhani & Kartodihardjo, Hariadi & Dewayani, Ade Ayu, 2017. "Fire economy and actor network of forest and land fires in Indonesia," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 21-31.
    3. Weatherley-Singh, Janice & Gupta, Aarti, 2017. "An ecological landscape approach to REDD+ in Madagascar: Promise and limitations?," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(P1), pages 1-9.
    4. Ekawati, Sulistya & Subarudi, & Budiningsih, Kushartati & Sari, Galih Kartika & Muttaqin, Muhammad Zahrul, 2019. "Policies affecting the implementation of REDD+ in Indonesia (cases in Papua, Riau and Central Kalimantan)," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 1-1.
    5. van Noordwijk, Meine, 2019. "Integrated natural resource management as pathway to poverty reduction: Innovating practices, institutions and policies," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 60-71.
    6. Boer, Henry James, 2018. "The role of government in operationalising markets for REDD+ in Indonesia," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 4-12.

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