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Examining the impact of urban compactness on work and social life disruption during COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from Jakarta, Indonesia


  • Usep Nugraha

    (Universitas Indonesia
    Statistics Indonesia)

  • Budy P. Resosudarmo

    (Australian National University)

  • Rus’an Nasrudin

    (Universitas Indonesia)


The COVID-19 pandemic has hit urban areas particularly hard, yet there is a lack of research on the hypothesis that living in more compact cities can provide better support for work and social conditions during the pandemic. This study addresses this gap by examining whether city compactness can mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic on the work and social life of urban residents in Jakarta, Indonesia. The study uses a household phone survey combined with publicly available urban form data. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, supplemented with a matching technique to address potential selection bias, is employed. The results suggest that living in more compact locations can reduce the disruption to work and social life associated with COVID-19 in urban communities. This positive effect is particularly experienced by males, non-migrants, and individuals from wealthy families.

Suggested Citation

  • Usep Nugraha & Budy P. Resosudarmo & Rus’an Nasrudin, 2023. "Examining the impact of urban compactness on work and social life disruption during COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from Jakarta, Indonesia," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 1-26, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:lsprsc:v:16:y:2023:i:1:d:10.1007_s12076-023-00347-7
    DOI: 10.1007/s12076-023-00347-7

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    More about this item


    COVID-19; Urban form; Work and social life; Developing countries;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General


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