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Friend or Foe? A Reversal of Ingroup Bias


  • Timothy C. Dunne

    () (Boise State University)


Research on groups in organizations has regularly identified the presence of favoritism toward members of one’s ingroup. Identity with a social group helps understand this bias, yet the mechanisms that may undermine the process have not been well documented. This study investigates the effect that not adhering to group expectations has on the positive bias otherwise awarded ingroup members, thus extending the literature on social identity theory and intragroup dynamics. Given that ingroup members, as compared to outgroup members, are expected to reciprocate loyalty and trust, this study examines what happens to the bias for the ingroup member that does not adhere to group expectations. Results from an intergroup negotiation experiment support the hypotheses that breaching group norms minimizes the ingroup bias effect. More importantly, results revealed a reversal of the ingroup bias, whereby ingroup members who did not uphold group expectations were evaluated more negatively than outgroup members.

Suggested Citation

  • Timothy C. Dunne, 2018. "Friend or Foe? A Reversal of Ingroup Bias," Group Decision and Negotiation, Springer, vol. 27(4), pages 593-610, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:grdene:v:27:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s10726-018-9576-8
    DOI: 10.1007/s10726-018-9576-8

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Adobor, Henry, 2006. "The role of personal relationships in inter-firm alliances: Benefits, dysfunctions, and some suggestions," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 49(6), pages 473-486.
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    3. Russell Haines & Jill Hough & Lan Cao & Douglas Haines, 2014. "Anonymity in Computer-Mediated Communication: More Contrarian Ideas with Less Influence," Group Decision and Negotiation, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 765-786, July.
    4. Haider Raza Abid & Amir Gulzar & Waqar Hussain, 2015. "The impact of servant leadership on organizational citizenship behaviors with the mediating role of trust and moderating role of group cohesiveness; A Study of public Sector of Pakistan," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 5(3), pages 234-242, March.
    5. Xusen Cheng & Linda Macaulay, 2014. "Exploring Individual Trust Factors in Computer Mediated Group Collaboration: A Case Study Approach," Group Decision and Negotiation, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 533-560, May.
    6. Kurt T. Dirks & Donald L. Ferrin, 2001. "The Role of Trust in Organizational Settings," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 12(4), pages 450-467, August.
    7. Ginés Navarro-Carrillo & Inmaculada Valor-Segura & Miguel Moya, 2018. "Do you Trust Strangers, Close Acquaintances, and Members of Your Ingroup? Differences in Trust Based on Social Class in Spain," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 135(2), pages 585-597, January.
    8. Jean M. Bartunek & Alan A. Benton & Christopher B. Keys, 1975. "Third Party Intervention and the Bargaining Behavior of Group Representatives," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 19(3), pages 532-557, September.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Star Trek and the Economics of Hate
      by Jason Barr in Skynomics Blog on 2020-07-15 12:13:07


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    Cited by:

    1. Mahto, Raj V. & Vora, Gautam & McDowell, William C. & Khanin, Dmitry, 2020. "Family member commitment, the opportunity costs of staying, and turnover intentions," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 9-19.


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