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On the construction of finite dimensional realizations for nonlinear forward rate models


  • Camilla Landén

    () (Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Manuscript)

  • Tomas Björk

    () (Department of Finance, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, SE-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden)


We consider interest rate models of Heath-Jarrow-Morton type where the forward rates are driven by a multidimensional Wiener process, and where the volatility structure is allowed to be a smooth functional of the present forward rate curve. In a recent paper [3], Björk and Svensson give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a finite dimensional Markovian state space realization (FDR) for such a forward rate model, and in the present paper we provide a general method for the actual construction of an FDR. We illustrate the method by constructing FDR:s for a number of concrete models. These FDR:s generalize previous results by allowing for a more general volatility structure. Furthermore the dimension of the realizations obtained by using our method is typically smaller than that of the corresponding previously known realizations.

Suggested Citation

  • Camilla Landén & Tomas Björk, 2002. "On the construction of finite dimensional realizations for nonlinear forward rate models," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 303-331.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:finsto:v:6:y:2002:i:3:p:303-331
    Note: received: January 2001; final version received: August 2001

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ernst Eberlein & Sebastian Raible, 1999. "Term Structure Models Driven by General Lévy Processes," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 31-53.
    2. R. Bhar & C. Chiarella, 1997. "Transformation of Heath?Jarrow?Morton models to Markovian systems," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 1-26.
    3. John C. Cox & Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr. & Stephen A. Ross, 2005. "A Theory Of The Term Structure Of Interest Rates," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Theory Of Valuation, chapter 5, pages 129-164 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Carl Chiarella & Oh Kang Kwon, 2001. "Forward rate dependent Markovian transformations of the Heath-Jarrow-Morton term structure model," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 237-257.
    5. Alan Brace & Marek Musiela, 1994. "A Multifactor Gauss Markov Implementation Of Heath, Jarrow, And Morton," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 259-283.
    6. Tomas BjÃrk & Andrea Gombani, 1999. "Minimal realizations of interest rate models," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 413-432.
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    Cited by:

    1. Björk, Tomas, 2003. "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 545, Stockholm School of Economics.
    2. Eckhard Platen & Stefan Tappe, 2011. "Affine Realizations for Levy Driven Interest Rate Models with Real-World Forward Rate Dynamics," Research Paper Series 289, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    3. Fred Espen Benth & Paul Kruhner, 2015. "Approximation of forward curve models in commodity markets with arbitrage-free finite dimensional models," Papers 1512.05983,
    4. Bjork, Tomas, 2009. "Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 3, number 9780199574742.
    5. Carl Chiarella & Samuel Chege Maina & Christina Nikitopoulos-Sklibosios, 2010. "Markovian Defaultable HJM Term Structure Models with Unspanned Stochastic Volatility," Research Paper Series 283, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    6. Christina Nikitopoulos-Sklibosios, 2005. "A Class of Markovian Models for the Term Structure of Interest Rates Under Jump-Diffusions," PhD Thesis, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, number 6.
    7. Gaspar, Raquel M., 2004. "On Finite Dimensional Realizations of Forward Price Term Structure Models," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 569, Stockholm School of Economics.
    8. Mikael Elhouar, 2008. "Finite-dimensional Realizations of Regime-switching HJM Models," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 331-354.
    9. Maria B. Chiarolla & Tiziano De Angelis, 2012. "Analytical Pricing of American Bond Options in the Heath-Jarrow-Morton Model," Papers 1212.0781,, revised Mar 2014.
    10. Alberto Ohashi & Alexandre B Simas, 2015. "Principal Components Analysis for Semimartingales and Stochastic PDE," Papers 1503.05909,, revised Mar 2016.
    11. Samuel Chege Maina, 2011. "Credit Risk Modelling in Markovian HJM Term Structure Class of Models with Stochastic Volatility," PhD Thesis, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, number 5.

    More about this item


    HJM models; factor models; forward rates; state space models; Markovian realizations;

    JEL classification:

    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing


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