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Climate change and potential impacts on tourism: evidence from the Zimbabwean side of the Victoria Falls


  • Kaitano Dube

    (Vaal University of Technology)

  • Godwell Nhamo

    (University of South Africa)


Tourism is a crucial development sector that employs thousands of people and contributes to addressing the triple challenge of poverty, inequality and unemployment in previously disadvantaged communities. In Zimbabwe, tourism is a fundamental tool for development that depends on the rich natural resource base to attract international tourists. This paper assesses the evidence of climate variability and change and its potential impact on the global tourist resort of Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. The research made use of over 40 years of meteorological and hydrography data that were supplemented by an online tourist survey that got 369 responses from across the world. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Microsoft Excel Analysis ToolPak. Overall, it emerged that, indeed, climate variability and change is taking place. There has been an increase in the maximum and minimum temperature. The largest temperature increase was recorded in October. A slight increase in rainfall was observed, albeit increased incidence of extreme rainfall and drought events. Delays in the onset of the rainfall season were noticeable with a shift from October to November. Extreme hydrological variations were evident in the flow regime of the falls. The paper concludes that the observed climate variability and change trends have potential effects on the tourism industry, particularly as expressed by the responses from the online survey, which favoured high water flow regimes as providing the best view of the falls. The paper recommends improved communication with tourists including a new climate and hydrological calendar for the resort to manage tourists’ expectations in the light of the noted change.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaitano Dube & Godwell Nhamo, 2019. "Climate change and potential impacts on tourism: evidence from the Zimbabwean side of the Victoria Falls," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 2025-2041, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:endesu:v:21:y:2019:i:4:d:10.1007_s10668-018-0118-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0118-y

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Zhanbing Ren & Yifan Zuo & Yudan Ma & Mu Zhang & Lee Smith & Lin Yang & Paul D. Loprinzi & Qian Yu & Liye Zou, 2020. "The Natural Environmental Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Marathon Event: A Case Study from China," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(7), pages 1-17, March.
    2. Amin Ullah Khan & Yousaf Ali, 2021. "Sustainable supplier selection for the cold supply chain (CSC) in the context of a developing country," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 23(9), pages 13135-13164, September.
    3. Kirsten Noome & Jennifer M. Fitchett, 2022. "Quantifying the climatic suitability for tourism in Namibia using the Tourism Climate Index (TCI)," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 5094-5111, April.
    4. Dube Kaitano & Nhamo Godwell, 2020. "Tourist perceptions and attitudes regarding the impacts of climate change on Victoria Falls," Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, Sciendo, vol. 47(47), pages 27-44, March.

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