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On the uncertainty and risks of macroeconomic forecasts: combining judgements with sample and model information

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  • Maximiano Pinheiro

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  • Paulo Esteves

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Abstract

Institutions which publish macroeconomic forecasts usually do not rely on a single econometric model to generate their forecasts. The combination of judgements with information from different models complicates the problem of characterizing the predictive density. This paper proposes a parametric approach to construct the joint and marginal densities of macroeconomic forecasting errors, combining judgements with sample and model information. We assume that the relevant variables are linear combinations of latent independent two-piece normal variables. The baseline point forecasts are interpreted as the mode of the joint distribution, which has the convenient feature of being invariant to judgments on the balance of risks.
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Suggested Citation

  • Maximiano Pinheiro & Paulo Esteves, 2012. "On the uncertainty and risks of macroeconomic forecasts: combining judgements with sample and model information," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 639-665, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:42:y:2012:i:3:p:639-665 DOI: 10.1007/s00181-010-0447-7
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ferreira, Jose T.A.S. & Steel, Mark F.J., 2007. "Model comparison of coordinate-free multivariate skewed distributions with an application to stochastic frontiers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 137(2), pages 641-673, April.
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    4. Álvaro A. Novo & Maximiano Pinheiro, 2003. "Uncertainty And Risk Analysis Of Macroeconomic Forecasts: Fan Charts Revisited," Working Papers w200319, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    5. Claudia Miani & Stefano Siviero, 2010. "A non-parametric model-based approach to uncertainty and risk analysis of macroeconomic forecast," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 758, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    6. Calzolari, Giorgio & Panattoni, Lorenzo, 1990. "Mode predictors in nonlinear systems with identities," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 317-326, October.
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    8. Kenneth F. Wallis, 2004. "An Assessment of Bank of England and National Institute Inflation Forecast Uncertainties," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 189(1), pages 64-71, July.
    9. Villani, Mattias & Larsson, Rolf, 2004. "The Multivariate Split Normal Distribution and Asymmetric Principal Components Analysis," Working Paper Series 175, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    10. Eric Leeper, 2003. "An "Inflation Reports" Report," NBER Working Papers 10089, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michal Franta & Jozef Barunik & Roman Horvath & Katerina Smidkova, 2011. "Are Bayesian Fan Charts Useful for Central Banks? Uncertainty, Forecasting, and Financial Stability Stress Tests," Working Papers 2011/10, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    2. Malte Knüppel & Guido Schultefrankenfeld, 2012. "How Informative Are Central Bank Assessments of Macroeconomic Risks?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 8(3), pages 87-139, September.
    3. Wojciech Charemza & Carlos Diaz Vela & Svetlana Makarova, 2013. "Inflation fan charts, monetary policy and skew normal distribution," Discussion Papers in Economics 13/06, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    4. Liao, Xin & Peng, Zuoxiang & Nadarajah, Saralees, 2013. "Asymptotic expansions for moments of skew-normal extremes," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 83(5), pages 1321-1329.
    5. Michal Franta & Jozef Baruník & Roman Horváth & Katerina Smídková, 2014. "Are Bayesian Fan Charts Useful? The Effect of Zero Lower Bound and Evaluation of Financial Stability Stress Tests," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 10(1), pages 159-188, March.
    6. Liao, Xin & Peng, Zuoxiang & Nadarajah, Saralees & Wang, Xiaoqian, 2014. "Rates of convergence of extremes from skew-normal samples," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 40-47.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Macroeconomic forecasts; Joint mode forecasts; Density forecasts; Fan charts; Balance of risks; Two-piece normal distribution; Multivariate skewed distribution; C53; E37;

    JEL classification:

    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

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