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Когнитивные Процессы В Преподавании: Связь С Достижениями Учащихся В Математике

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Abstract

Ларина Галина Сергеевна - кандидат наук об образовании, научный сотрудник Центра психометрики и измерений в образовании. E-mail: larina.gala@gmail.comКапуза Анастасия Васильевна - научный сотрудник Международной лаборатории оценки практик и инноваций в образовании. E-mail: akapuza@hse.ruНациональный исследовательский университет "Высшая школа экономики".Адрес: 101000 Москва, ул. Мясницкая, 20.В современном информационном обществе школьное образование должно обеспечивать развитие умения решать незнакомые задачи, быстро ориентироваться в больших объемах информации, принимать решения в ситуации неопределенности. Экспериментально установлено, что такие умения можно сформировать, если чаще использовать на уроках задания, в решение которых вовлечены когнитивные процессы высокого порядка. Однако остается открытым вопрос об эффектах использования таких заданий для усвоения предметных знаний, в частности по математике. На данных лонгитюдного исследования "Траектории в образовании и профессии", включающего тесты TIMSS и PISA, авторы оценивают представленность в повседневной учебной работе практик преподавания, вовлекающих два типа когнитивных процессов - высокого и низкого порядка, и их связь с характеристиками учителей. Также рассматривается связь между этими практиками и результатами учащихся по математике в конце 9‑го класса. Установлено, что использование и тех и других практик положительно связано с результатами учеников по математике. Однако задания, вовлекающие когнитивные процессы высокого порядка, дают более сильный положительный эффект с точки зрения результатов по математике в 8‑м классе и спустя один учебный год. Эффекты практик преподавания, направленных на развитие когнитивных навыков низкого порядка, спустя год теряют значимость или становятся отрицательными. Показано, что использование рассматриваемых практик не связано с такими характеристиками учителя, как квалификационная категория или полученное образование.

Suggested Citation

  • Ларина Г. С. & Капуза А. В., 2020. "Когнитивные Процессы В Преподавании: Связь С Достижениями Учащихся В Математике," Вопросы образования // Educational Studies, НИУ ВШЭ, issue 1, pages 70-96.
  • Handle: RePEc:scn:voprob:2020:i:1:p:70-96
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